Earth Structure Definitions

Flashcards by siobhan.quirk, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by siobhan.quirk about 8 years ago


Undergraduate Geology - Part 1 (Earth Structure) Flashcards on Earth Structure Definitions, created by siobhan.quirk on 05/08/2013.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Define the Solar System is the Sun, planets, their moons, comets and asteroids
Define the Sun a star composed of hydrogen and helium. It is the largest object in the Solar Sysem and contains more then 99.8% of the total mass
Define a planet a sizable object orbiting the sun
Define moon a natural satellite orbiting a planet
Define asteroids rocky objects which failed to form a planet
Define meteorites fragments of rock which fall to Earth from space
Define a comet composed of ice and dust. The outer layer melts into water vapour as it gets closer to the Sun.
Define rheid a solid material that flows
Define peridotite an ultramafic igneous rock composed of the minerals olivine and pyroxene with a coarse crystal size
Define olivine a dense, ferromagnesian silicate mineral
Define partial melting where a proportion of the minerals will have a lower melting point, allowing them to melt while the rest remains solid
Define kimberlites fine-grained, ultramafic igneous rocks
Define xenolith fragment of foreign rock included in an igenous rock which has come from a different source
Define ophiolite a section of oceanic crust and upper mantle broken off and attached to the edge of a continent during plate movement
Define palaeomagnetism ancient magnetism preserved in rocks
Define magnetic anomaly a value for the Earth's magnetic field, which is different from the expected value
Define magnetic inclination is the angle of dip of the lines of a magnetic field. It is the angle with the horizontal made by a compass needle.
Define remnant magnetism magnetism shown by rocks due to the alignment of their magnetic minerals according to the Earth's magnetic field at the time of their formation
Show full summary Hide full summary


The Layers of the Earth
Exploring Space
Origins of the Solar System
Planetary Geology
Identifying Volcanism in the Solar System
Meteorites and Impact Craters
Direct Evidence for the Structure of the Earth
Magnetic Earth
Indirect Evidence for the Structure of the Earth
Reducing the Impact of Earthquakes
Detecting Earthquakes