Question  Answer 
BASIC SKILLS  ~draw sketches ~ Analise photos ~label and annotate ~use overlays ~literacy skills 
INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS fieldwork investigation~ aims, hypothesis, data to collect, methods, (river measurements), Collecting data for river surveys SPEED 10m length, time it takes the float to cover the distance, repeat several times, find average time (surface speed), x0.8 (true speed across channel), CROSSSECTIONAL AREA & WETTED PERIMETER run tape across river bank to bank, depth at 50cm intervals, transfer to graph, can get info from that, RIVER DISCHARGE speed x crosssectional area  
CARTOGRAPHIC SKILLS  > the reading and interpretation of maps > the production of maps in order to present information. read and interpret: atlas maps, OS maps, base maps&sketch maps, towncentre maps&plans 
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sketch_map (image/jpg)

SKETCH MAP illustrate location of case study, simple scale, + fit to your needs, easy to understand,  inaccuracies, lack of detail 
PROPORTIONAL SYMBOL MAP include symbols proportional in size/area to their value, + visual representation, clear, easy to understand  range rather than specific value, difficult to measure certain shapes  
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flow_line_map (image/jpg)

FLOW LINE MAP represent volume of movement from place to place, line:quantity, along actual route, + clear visual representation  may look overcrowded if too many lines 
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desire_line_map (image/png)

DESIRE LINE MAP represent volume of movement from place to place, line:quantity, directly from origin to destination (no account of route), + clear visual representation  may look overcrowded if too many lines 
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trip_line_map (image/jpg)

TRIP LINE represent volume of movement from place to place, line:quantity, can be drawn to show regular trips (e.g. footfall of shoppers in town), + clear visual representation  may look overcrowded if too many lines 
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choropleth_map (image/jpeg)

CHOROPLETH MAP data values represented by density of shading, area in terms of value (e.g. pop density in UK), in classes, + colourful, draws attention, visual,  assumes whole area under one form of shading has same density with no variations, implies abrupt changes as you cross regional borders (not the case) 
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isoline_maps (image/png)

ISOLINE MAP all points along a line have same value (e.g. pressure in weather and altitude on OS maps), + allows patterns of distribution to be seen (clear),  difficult to get continuous data along a line 
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dot_map (image/jpg)

DOT MAP spatial distribution represented by a number of dots equal to size (e.g. 1dot=10,000people), + clear, visual,  large numbers of dots are difficult to count, assumes false emptiness in areas below dot value, must be accompanying info about distribution or may be misleading 
GRAPHICAL SKILLS  > different types of representations of data (mainly graphs) 
ARITHMETIC LINE GRAPHS simple line graph line represents actual values of measure on y axis  
ARITHMETIC LINE GRAPHS compound line graph differences between the points on adjacent lines give actual values, areas between lines usually shaded  
ARITHMETIC (LINE) GRAPHS two sets of data left hand y axis for one scale and right hand y axis for a different scale, + useful visual impression of the connection between two sets of data  
USING ARITHMETIC (LINE) GRAPHS  ~plot independent on x axis and dependent on y axis, avoid awkward scales, clearly label axes, use different colour/symbol if plotting more than one line 
ARITHMETIC LINE GRAPHS pros and cons  + can compare multiple continuous data sets easily, + data inbetween points can be inferred through line of best fit, + can make predictions,  can only use continuous data,  only used to show data over time 
LONG SECTIONS & CROSSSECTIONS used in river studies, construct line graphs showing height (y axis) but with distance on the x axis, + useful for describing and comparing land shape,  difficult to select smaller scale without inaccuracies  
BAR GRAPHS height is proportional to value, verticala scale is absolute data (discrete), can be SIMPLE, COMPARATIVE or COMPOUND, + show relative magnitudes effectively, +could show positive and negative values, + easy to understand,  categories can be reordered to emphasize certain effects (biased), only discrete data  
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scattergraph.gif (image/gif)

SCATTERGRAPHS investigate relationship between two sets of data, bestfit line can be added, bottom left to top right= positive correlation top left to bottom right= negative correlation, points away from trend line known as residuals (anomalies) + useful in identifying patterns that could lead to further inquiry, + outliers could be investigated, + shows trend,  correlation could emerge when a relationship is just coincidental all data must be continuous,  hard to visualise results in large data sets 
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pie_chart (image/jpg)

PIE CHARTS divided into segments according to share of total value, + visually effective,  difficult to assess percentages or make comparisons when many small segments,  needs a key, no exact numerical data, best for 37 categories, total is unknown 
PROPORTIONAL DIVIDED CIRCLES (lots of pie charts) no. of pie charts drawn proportionally together... use formula r= √V/π, V= value you want total pie chart to represent, r= radius of pi chart, (π=3.142), draw a circle radius r on graph paper, must state scale area represents value x units of data= 1 square unit on the graph paper  
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triangular_graph (image/png)

TRIANGULAR GRAPH plotted on special paper (equilateral triangle), + varying proportiong and their relative importance can be seen, + can see the dominant variable of the three, +clusters sometimes emerge allowing classification,  only possible to use it for a whole figure broken into three components as percentages, cannot be used for absolute data or for figures not broken down into three components 
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kite_diagram (image/jpg)

KITE DIAGRAMS show changes over distance, particularly in vegetation, one axis is distance, the other the individual plant species, width of kite represents a single species, + width of kite enables visual comparisons to be made of the distribution of vegetation at any point in the section 
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radial_diagram (image/png)

RADIAL DIAGRAMS circumference represents orientations (compass directions) or a recurring feature e.g. a time period of 24 hours or an annual cycle of activity +can be used to plot traffic flows ore pedestrian flows over a period of time during the day, +can compare multiple sets of data, +useful when one variable is a directional feature, hard to spot anomalies, hard to make a suitable scale, 
LOGARITHMIC GRAPHS drawn in same way as arithmetic graphs but scales are divided into a no. of cycles, each representing a tenfold increase in the range of values i.e. 1 to 10 then 10 to 100 then 100 to 1000 etc., starting point depends on data range, graph paper can be fully logarithmic or semilogarithmic (one axis on log scale and other is linear), straight line if rate of change increasing at constant proportional rate (e.g. doubling each time period), + good for showing rates of change (steeper line, faster rate), + allow a wide range of data to be displayed, cannot plot +ve and ve values on the same graph, never base line of 0  
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dispersion_graph (image/jpg)

DISPERSION GRAPHS used to display the main patterns in data distribution, graph show each value as individual point against a vertical scale, shows range of data and distribution within the range +enables comparison of the degree of bunching of 2 sets of data, +shows spread from mean, +anomalies shown, works better with lots of data, standard deviation can be manipulated (biased) 
STATISTICAL SKILLS  >measures of central tendency (averages & distribution) > measures of dispersion or variability > box & whisker plots > histograms >correlation (Spearman rank correlation coefficient) 
MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY Arithmetic mean= (Σx)/n, Mode= most frequent value, median= (n+1)/2 (middle number), distribution of the data set= +ve or ve skew (bigger difference in mean, mode, median > bigger skew...+ve or ve)  
MEASURES OF DISPERSION OR VARIABILITY range= highest value lowest value, interquartile range= Q3Q1= [3(n+1)/4][(n+1)/4], Standard deviation= √[(∑x^2 )/n)((∑x)/n)^2]  
BOXANDWHISKER PLOTS need median, Q1, Q3, highest value, lowest value and outliers. The box contains 50% of the data and is the IQR  
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histogram (image/jpg)

HISTOGRAMS used to show frequency distribution of data, use bars for frequency, data is classed/grouped, +used to simplify and clarify data that are easier to analyse when in groups, +large amounts of data can be reduced to manageable proportions, +makes it possible to see trends, dificult to group the data (establish no. of classes and class interval) 
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spearman_s_rank (image/jpg)

SPEARMAN RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (measuring correlation) comparison between two sets of data to see if there is a relationship between them, measures degree to which there is correlation, raw figures are ranked, d=difference in ranking between the two sets of paired data, n= no. of sets of paired data, Method~ 1. rank both sets highest to lowest (highest=1, 2nd highest=2 etc.)(if 2+ the same, find average rank and the next value will be the one after), 2. calculate difference in rank for each set of paired data (d), 3. put d and n in formula, 4. 1=perfecet +ve correlation, 1= perfect ve correlation, 0= no correlation 
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spearman_s_rank (image/jpg)

SPEARMAN'S RANK CONTINUED warnings~ need between 10 and 30 data sets since unreliable if lower and too complex if higher, relationship may have occurred by chance>must assess statistical SIGNIFICANCE through tables >5%=insignificant, <5%=significant=meaningful, <1% occurring by chance= very significant, if coefficient>table value ~ significant at that level 
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ICT_skills_geog (image/jpg)

ICT SKILLS ~use remotely sensed data (photos including satellite), ~use databases (e.g. censuses), ~use Geographical information systems (GIS), ~present text, graphical and cartographic images using ICT 
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GIS (image/jpg)

GIS (a mapping tool) used by environmental planners, gov. departments, public utility companies & commercial companies. Ability to store, retrieve, manipulate & analyse wide range of spatially related data. Can: help with ?ing and understanding data, enable multiple interrogation of complex data, illustrate difficult concepts in dynamic & visual way, use 3D, help for modelling and decision making 