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CSW Chapter 4 Study Guide 2017

Description

Flashcards on CSW Chapter 4 Study Guide 2017, created by Adam Greiner on 03/15/2017.
Adam Greiner
Flashcards by Adam Greiner, updated more than 1 year ago
Adam Greiner
Created by Adam Greiner over 5 years ago
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Resource summary

Question Answer
Viticulture The intentional cultivation of grapevines
Winegrowing Viticulture for sole purpose of making wine
Vine Trunk Connection between underground root system and above ground structure
Vine Arms Branches that scion from vine trunk. They support the leaves and clusters
Vine Spur The beginning formation of an arm
Vine Cane The long narrow reaching end of a vine arm. Pruned seasonally from cordons to avoid entanglement
Cloning The propagation method of pruning a young cane and hydroponically growing a root system and replanting into vineyard
Field Grafting Propagation method where by removing the canes and making an incision in an undesirable trunk to insert healthy un-rooted cutting from desirable vine. Gives access to rootstock but grows like new vine
Vine yielding Grapes will grow in first or second season but will be undesirable for winemaking until third season (Thirdleaf) do to youth
Wine grape optimal period It is said that the 6th year of a vine is when the greatest crop forms and will produce at optimal levels for a decade
Old vines The term is not highly regulated but the designation is often reserved for vines with 50 years of age or more
Ideal growing latitudes Between 30 and 50 degrees latitude in both Northern and Southern for their long, warm to hot summers and cool to cold winters
Winter dormancy Vines conserve their energy for spring production leading to fall harvest. Seasons are opposite between N and S causing a 6 month difference in harvest periods
Bud Break A potentially hazardous period when temps exceed 50F
Flowering The 2nd critical phase that takes place 40 to 80 days after bud break. These cluster of flowers that fertilize will turn into one or two grapes. Warm and dry is ideal for during flowering
Berries Referring to grapes especially in immature phase
Coulore "Shatter" Disease where by flowers fail to become developed berries due to extreme weather conditions that cause flowers to stay closed and not fertilize (Grenache, Malbec, Merlot and Muscat most susceptible)
Millerandage Hazard of poor weather conditions that cause uneven maturation and ripeness of grapes. Can cause "green" flavors in wines negatively
Veraison The plants sudden acceleration period towards maturation
Physiological Maturity The optimal level of phenolic compunds
Respiration Plants break down of sugar and carbs providing energy for root and leaf growth. Rate of respiration doubles for every 18F temperature increase
Transpiration Process where water evaporation leaves through opening in underside of leaves. Known as Stomata. Cools the vine
Stomata The openings in the underside of leaves that allow transpiration. They will close if not enough water is available. They bring in carbon dioxide and a shut down will also stop photosynthesis
Translocation Movement of material from one part of the plant to another
Weather vs Climate Weather: Actual current conditions Climate: Historical averages
Climate: Macro- Meso - Micro - Macro: The region Meso: Portion of region Micro: Portion of vineyard
Two common soil details for best growing 1. Not very fertile soil, controls growth preventing over production 2. Regulates water supply by drainage so vines do not intake too much
Soil is defined by size of its particles Clay: Very fine, tight, low water passage Silt: Mid size Sand: Coarse particles low water retention Gravel: Large, inorganic
Viral Disease Virus spread through propagating infected cuttings
Bacterial Disease Usually spread by insects and and animals
Fungal Disease Generally spread by airborne spores especially in warm, humid climates: Oidium and Peronospora. Usually show as powdery mildew
Botrytis Cinera Known as noble rot. Can be beneficial if occurring at full maturation but detrimental during early stage of grape growth. In German is is called Edelfaule
Phylloxera Microscopic insects that sucks sap from leaves and roots of grapevines. American vines are resistant to Phylloxera
Pruning and Training Methods Head Training: Vines grow like bushes and normally spur pruned Guyot: Cane is trained along wire all in same direction Cordon: Same as guyot but spur pruned Pergola: Trained vertically
VSP Vertical Shoot Positioning: Allows good air circulation and light exposure. each new years canes trained upward above fruiting area. Easier harvest
Brix Degree of measurement pertaining to sugar content in grapes
Sugar measurements US: Brix France: Baume Germany: Oechsle (Oe) Austria: Klosterneuburger Mostwaage (KMW)
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