AP BIO Unit 3: Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

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AP AP BIO Mind Map on AP BIO Unit 3: Cellular Respiration and Fermentation, created by Meredith W on 10/05/2017.
Meredith W
Mind Map by Meredith W, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Meredith W
Created by Meredith W about 5 years ago
Meredith W
Copied by Meredith W about 5 years ago
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Resource summary

AP BIO Unit 3: Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
  1. catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels
    1. catabolic pathways and the production of ATP
      1. fermentation
        1. aerobic respiration

          Annotations:

          • most efficient
          1. anaerobic respiration

            Annotations:

            • sometimes in anaerobic respiration, molecules other than O2 are used as reactants (along with the organic molecule "fuel" that is present)
            1. C6H12O6 + 6CO2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy (ATP + heat)

              Annotations:

              • can happen spontaneous (without an input of energy)
              1. redox reactions: oxidization and refuction
                1. oxidization of organic fuel molecules during cellular respiration
                  1. C6H12O2 is oxidized into 6CO2
                    1. 6O2 is reduced into 6H2O
                    2. stepwise energy harvest via NAD+ and the electron transport change
                      1. in some steps of glucoses catalysis, electrons are stripped from glucose (H+ ions)
                    3. the stages of cellular respiration: a preview
                      1. the stages of cellular respiration: a preview
                        1. glycosis
                          1. citric acid cycle/ oxidization of pyruvate
                            1. oxidative phosphorylation
                              1. chemiosmosis and the electron transport chain
                                1. accepts electrons, passes them from one molecule to another

                                  Annotations:

                                  • electrons usually accepted by NADH
                                  1. the energy released at each step of the stage is stored in a form the mictochonrdrion can use to make ATP from ATP
                                    1. mode of ATP synthesis called oxidative phosphorylation because it is powered by the redox reactions of the electron transport chain
                                    2. a smaller amount of ATP is formed in a few directions of glycosis and the citric acid cycle called substrate- level phosphorylation
                                      1. occurs when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP
                                  2. some steps are redox reactions in which dehydrogenase transfer electrons from substrates to, forming NaDH

                                    Annotations:

                                    • should have connection to pyruvate oxidization as well: make connector when not glitchy... what substrates?
                            2. catabolic pathways: metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules
                              1. organic compounds possess potential energy because of the arrangement of electrons in the bond between their atoms
                              2. glycosis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate
                                1. after pyruvate is oxidized, the citric acid cycle completes the enegery-yielding oxidization of organic molecules

                                  Annotations:

                                  • citric acid cycle is also called the krebs cycle
                                  1. pyruvate oxidization
                                    1. after glycosis, most energy not yet released: still left in pyruvate
                                      1. after pyruvate is created, it goes to a mitochodrion: enzymatic reactions

                                        Annotations:

                                        • in cells where oxygen is present
                                        1. CO2 is removed from pyruvate
                                          1. remaining 2C pyruvate is oxidized, NADH produced
                                            1. CoA added
                                              1. acetyl CoA produced

                                                Annotations:

                                                • acetyl coenzyme a
                                                1. will feed its acetyl group into citric acid cycle for further oxidization
                                    2. citric acid cycle
                                    3. during oxidative phosphorylation, chemiosmosis couples electron transport to ATP synthesis
                                      1. fermentation and anaerobic respiration enables cells to produce ATP without the use of oxygen
                                        1. glycosis and the citric acid cycle connect to many other metabolic pathways
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