Topic 7

Hannah Fernandez
Flashcards by Hannah Fernandez, updated more than 1 year ago
Hannah Fernandez
Created by Hannah Fernandez almost 8 years ago
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A level Sociology (Education) Flashcards on Topic 7, created by Hannah Fernandez on 13/05/2013.

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What is meant by the tripartite system that was introduced by the 1944 Education Act? tripartite meant that children would be selected and allocated one of three schools based on an 11+ exam. -Grammar schools = they had passed the 11+ exam and consisted mostly of middle class pupils. It gave them access to non-maual jobs and higher education. -Modern schools = they had failed the 11+ exam and consisted -Technical schools = only existed in few areas.
What did the tripartite system do rather than promote meritocracy? It reproduced class inequality as the 11+ exam required girls to get higher marks. It also legitimated inequality through the ideology that ability is inborn.
What was the aim of the comprehensive system in 1965? It aimed to overcome the class divide, however it continued to reproduce class inequality through streaming and labelling. It made it appear that everyone had an equal opportunity. There is still around 160 grammar schools in England.
Who introduced the Education Reform Act 1988? Margaret Thatcher, in the Conservative government.
What did David mean by 'parentocracy'? He used this phrase to describe the process of marketisation. He said it encourages diversity among schools and gives parents more of a choice. It also meets the needs of different pupils and raises standards.
What do critics argue about the inequality of marketisation? They say that middle calss parents are better placed to take advantage of the available choices. Inequality is reproduced through exam league tables and the funding formula, as it means schools can be more selective if they are placed higher on league tables and popular schools will get more funding.
How does parentocracy legimate inequality? It legitimates it as it makes it appear that all parents have the same freedome, and middle class parents have better economic and cultural capital.
What policies have there been since 1997 by the New Labour party? They have provided deprived areas with additional resources; theyprovided EMA payments to low-income families to encourage further education and they have increased the school leaving age to 18.
How do specialist schools help promote diversity and choice? It offers parents better choice and rasies standards by chievement to enable schools to build on its strengths?
What criticisms are there of the New Labour policies? Whitty said that EMAs may encourage schooling until 18, however tuition fees are higher and it may deter them from university. Also, Trowler said that policies such as increased funding of state education shows evidence of reducing educational inequality.
What policies are there relating to gender? In the 1800s, females were largely excluded from higher education, however, in 1970s, policies such as Girls into Science and Technology were introduced to reduce gender differences in subjects.
What policies are there relating to ethnicity? Policies in the 60s and 70s where introducation so that the minority could absorb into mainstream British culture 'Assimilation' which also helped with learning English ie. compensatory education. Although, inequality may lie in poverty or racism. In the 80s and 90s they introducted Multicultural education, which valued all cultures in the school curriculum.
What was Stone's criticism to MCE? She aruged that balck pupils do not fail due to lack of self esteem, therefore MCE is misguided. It picks out stereotypical features of minority cultures eg. samosas, saris and steel drums.
What was meant by 'social inclusion' relating to ethnic policies? Since the late 90s, policies cu has amending the Race Relations Act to place a legal duty to schools to promote racial equeality. There was also policies that continued fudning for English as additional language.
What was Mirza argument about the changes in policies? She argues that there has been little change in policies, she aruges that instead of tackling the structual causes of ethnic inequality such as poverty and racism, educational policies still take a 'soft' approach that focuses on culture, behaviour and the home. Schemes for motivationla and personal apprach/development, homework and breakfast clubs, she argues that they are short-term ppolicies that will not have a lasting effect.
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