Applied Science Flashcards

Adnan M
Flashcards by Adnan M, updated more than 1 year ago
Adnan M
Created by Adnan M almost 7 years ago
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Flashcards on Applied Science Flashcards, created by Adnan M on 05/12/2014.

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Question Answer
Which two cells in the body are responsible for making sure that the blood glucose concentration is controlled? The liver and the pancreas
How does the Liver make sure that the blood glucose concentration is within an acceptable range? The liver does this function by converting the soluble glucose into insoluble glycogen if the glucose concentration is high. But if the glucose concentration is low then the liver convert the insoluble glycogen back into soluble glucose in order to make sure that the blood glucose concentration is within an acceptable range
How does the pancreas make sure that the blood glucose concentration is within an acceptable range? The pancreas has two cells; the b-cells produce insulin which convert the glucose into glycogen if the glucose concentration is high but if the glucose concentration is low then the a-cells of the pancreas will produce Glucagon which will release the glucose inside of the glycogen in order to make sure that the blood glucose concentration is within an acceptable range
What is Diabetes Mellitus? This is a disorder which a person can have and it involves the pancreas of a person being unable to produce any insulin at all or the insulin which is produced is ineffective
What is type 1 Diabetes? This is a insulin dependent diabetes which involves the b-cells of the pancreas being unable to produce any insulin at all. This occurs early in childhood or in puberty.The cause of this disease is complex as it involves autoimmune, viral or genetic factors. Approx 10-20% of people have this disorder
What is type 2 Diabetes? This is a non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus which involves the b-cells of the pancreas not being able to produce enough insulin or the tissues of the body do not respond to the insulin which is produced. This normally occurs after 35 years of age and it is mainly due to genes
What is a Clinistix? This is a strip of plastic which has enzymes attached to it.
How is a Clinistix used? A sample of blood is obtained through a lancet puncturing the skin, the blood drop is then placed on the area which has the enzymes to the plastic. The glucose is converted bring about a colour change in an indicator due to an indicator also being present. The colour is then compared to a colour chart which allows for the concentration of blood glucose to be determined.
What is the enzyme reaction of Stage 1? h
What is the enzyme reaction of Stage 2? h
What are Glucose Meters and how can they be used? Glucose meters are often powered by a battery and will accept a Clinistix and then will present the readings as the blood glucose concentration. These are used in order to determine if diet, medication or treatment program is effective or not. Some of them are downloadable and can be used with diabetes management software.
What are the three layers that a Biosensor has? It has a: A selectively permeable membrane A recognition layer A transducer(which may come in the form of a microchip)
What does the selectively permeable membrane do? It only allows the analysate, e.g. glucose, through to the recognition layer
What does the recognition layer do? It has antibodies or enzymes which bind or interact with the analysate
What does the transducer of the biosensor? The transducer produces an electrical signal when a product has been created when the enzymes or antibodies have interacted with the analysate
How does a biosensor work? A blood glucose biosensor works by using an enzyme to break down the glucose. The gluconic acid is produced which results in a positive charge being formed on the surface of the microchip. This results in an electron flow occurring and is "processed" into a measure of blood glucose concentration. This happens for each glucose molecule "captured" and the biosensor determines what the overall blood glucose concentration is. The LCD( liquid crystal display) will then present the blood glucose concentration of the blood sample as a number on the LCD.
What is the procedure which is used in order to take a vital capacity, tidal volume or lung capacity or volume of a person using a spirometer? The spirometer is pre-filled with medical grade oxygen to ensure that the patient is safe whilst using this device The spirometer is left full with taps closed The patient is then told to sit down and relax The mouthpiece of the spirometer is rinsed in an antiseptic solution or a new mouth piece is used from a sterile pack The mouthpiece is placed in the subject's mouth and nose clips is put in place
What happens when the valves is leading from the patient to the spirometer is open and the patient is breathing in a mixture of atmospheric gases ? The recorder is then started A the end of the exhalation the spirometer tap is turned to connect the subject to the spirometer From this point, the subject is breathing oxygen from the spirometer bell Normal breathing is recorded for about one minute The subject is asked to breathe in as deeply as possible which is then followed by normal breathing for a few breaths The patient is then asked to breathe out as far as possible, once more, by normal breathing for a few minutes
What is breathing rate? This is defined by the number of inhalations and exhalations which are completed in one minute. This data can then be determined by simple observation or by reading off data from a spirogram
What is Peak Expiratory Flow Rate(PEF)? This is defined by the maximum flow of during forced expiration, It is measured in dm3 per minute and is most commonly used using a Wright or Mini-Wright flow meter
How is a Peak Flow Meter used with a patient? Before any reading is taken, the mouthpiece is cleaned and the meter is turned to zero The subject is then told to take as deep breath as possible, the patient then blows out hard as possible The lips of the patient should be sealed firmly around the mouthpiece in order to ensure that none of the air escapes and all of the air is blown out goes through the meter This process is then repeated three times and the highest value is written down as the recording
How would a digital sphygmomanometer be used with a patient in order to determine what their blood pressure is? The patient would be made to relax first The cuff will then be attached to the upper arm The arm must then be laid on a flat surface The monitor must then be switched on which will result in the cuff tightening The values which are present on the LCD on the monitor must then be recorded
What is Tidal Volume? The volume of air that is ventilated during either the inspiratory or the expiratory phase of each breathing cycle
What is Inspiratory Reserve Volume? This is the volume of the extra air that can be inspired at the end of tidal inspiration
What is the Expiratory Reserve Volume? This is the volume of air that can be expired at the end of tidal expiration
What is the Inspiratory Capacity? This is the maximum volume of air that can be inspired following tidal expiration
What is the Vital Capacity? this is the maximum volume of air that can be expired after a maximum inspiration
What is the Residual volume? this is the volume of gas left in the lungs after maximum expiration
What are restrictive lung diseases? These are lung volumes which are abnormally low(in particular residual volume) and which indicate if a person may have a restrictive lung disease such as pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer and pneumonia
What is asthma described as? Asthma is described as an obstructive lung disease and asthmatics usually have normal lung volumes(except for residual volume) but their flow rate is reduced
What do people with obstructive lung diseases have? People who have obstructive lung diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease(COPD),e.g. bronchitis and emphysema, have residual volumes which are greater than normal
Tachycardia Traces that show abnormally elevated heart rate, above 100 beats per minute in adults, indicate a state called tachycardia.
Bradycardia If the heart rate is abnormally depressed, below 60 beats per minute in adults, then this indicates a state described as Bradycardia.
Arrythmia Arrhythmia is a term used when there is a deviation from the normal heart rate
How can Tachycardia be caused? Tachycardia may be caused by exercise, emotion or fever
Which type of person display bradycardia? Athletes commonly show bradycardia
Sinus Arrhythmia Sinus Arrhythmia shows up in young people due to a change in rythm with ventilation
What happens to heart rate during inspiration or expiration? Heart rate increases with inspiration and decreases with expiration
Ventricular Fibrillations This is the term used to describe when the ventricular contractions of the heart are irregular and uncoordinated
What happens when ventricular fibrillation occurs? This results in ineffective cardiac output and the individual, as a result, rapidly loses consciousness and death occurs unless immediate effective treatment is started
What is the way in which an ELISA test is carried out? Antibodies specific for the antigen in question are added to bind to the bottom of the wells The wells are washed to get rid of surplus antibodies An agent is added that binds to those areas of the walls of the wells not occupied by antibody The wells are washed again to get rid of surplus binding agent The patient's serum sample is added to the wells Any of the specific antigen present in the serum binds to the antibodies fixed to the walls of the wells The wells are washed to get rid of surplus serum Antibody-enzyme complex is added to the wells This complex binds to any antigen trapped in the wells Surplus complex is washed away Substrate appropriate for the enzyme linked to the antibody is added If the enzyme is there, the enzyme promoted reaction occurs An observable change occurs(probably a colour change) and intensity measured if the test is positive
Pathogen This is a disease causing organism
Antigens These are molecules which a cell recognises as foreign. They could be part of a pathogen, pollen grain or a dust particle. They initiate an immune response
Antibody This is a protein which is produced in response to an antigen. The relationship between an antigen and its antibody is extremely specific
Enzyme This is a protein which alters the rate of a chemical change. Sometimes, they are described as biological catalysts
What happens to a person when a blood sample is obtained? Blood samples are usually carried out to obtain a blood sample A band,called a tourniquet, is placed around the upper arm This stops the blood from leaving the veins in the arm. The veins at the elbow become much more obvious and filled with blood The surface of the skin is cleaned A hypodermic needle is inserted into a vein A low pressure bottle or syringe is attached to the needle and blood is withdrawn The blood is transferred to a bottle if a syringe has been used and the bottle sealed Pressure is applied to the puncture wound with a small ball of cotton wool Adhesive tape may be placed over the dressing The hypodermic and syringe are placed into the designated waste container The blood sample is sent to the appropriate laboratory for analysis
What are the techniques used to test blood samples whether if drugs are present and what their concentrations are? Gas Chromatography (GC) High Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC) UV Absorption(UVA) Mass Spectrometry(MS)
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