English Language Revision

saradevine97
Flashcards by saradevine97, updated more than 1 year ago
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Revision for A-Level English Language

Resource summary

Question Answer
Simple Sentence Must contain: a subject, a verb and an object. They must make sense on their own. The subject performs the verb. Object is the effect of the verb.
Compound Sentence Compound sentences are simple sentences which have been joined together by a conjunction: and, or, but. They are made up of two simple sentences which make sense on their own.
The subordinate clause Add's extra detail/information to a sentence - it doesn't make sense on its own.
The main clause Makes sense on its own Commas show boundaries between two clauses
Relative Clause Relative clauses are used to provide more detail about the nouns. They are introduced by relative pronouns [who, which and that] They are used in the middle or the end of the sentence. The relative clause is connected to the main clause
Adverbial Clause Adverbial clauses are introduced by conjunctions such as: before, until, while, because and since. They act as adverbial's and typically explain when, where or why something happened. They are
Preposition a word which relates one word to another e.g: 'in', 'at', 'under'
Imperative a command, for example an imperative sentence commands someone to do something.
Lexical Field a group of words with associated meanings and uses. Like a dance lexical field would include words like : pointe, first position and grand jete.
Prosody non-verbal aspects of speech such as volume, intonation and pitch.
Lexis The vocabulary system; meaning at word and phrase level.
Grammar The structural relationships within and between sentences and utterances.
Phonetics/Phonology The sounds of English, how they are produced and how they are described; including aspects of prosody.
Pragmatics The ways in which social conventions and implied meanings are encoded in spoken and written language.
Discourse Longer stretches of text; looking particularly at aspects of cohesion. The ways texts create identities for particular individuals, groups or institutions E.g: discourse of law or the media.
Graphology Language as a semiotic system creating meaning through textual design, signs and images.
Register Situational variation and register: how language varies in relation to audiences, purposes and contexts.
Mode How language may vary as a consequence of the channel of communication (speech, writing and mixed modes)
Idiolect The form of language used by, and unique to, a single individual.
Sociolect A variety of language (or dialect) used by a particular social group.
Dialect A variety of language with distinctive features of vocabulary, grammar and accent (e.g: regional dialects)
Nouns Are people, places, things or emotions.
Noun Phrases are a group of words which form a sentence when used with a verb (includes noun) E.g: MY FRIENDS can ski
Proper Nouns Typically begin with a capital letter. They refer to specific people and places. E.g: London, LA, Diego, Pluto
Common Noun They are less specific and refer to types of people, places, feelings: girl, city, excitement.
Concrete Nouns They refer to things which exist physically - things in which we can see and feel: table, foot, cottage and tiger.
Abstract Noun Refer to things which do not physically exist - cannot see them - feelings, qualities and ideas. Happiness, Love, Friendship, Democracy
Collective Noun Refer to groups of people, animals or objects: team, family, flock.
Adjectives Adjectives give us more information. They are describing words which describe nouns.
Adjectival phrase Adjectival phrases are used in a sentence with a verb. E.g: the cake is VERY NICE
Comparatives An adjective which makes a comparison, usually ending in -er E.g: hotter, slower
Superlatives An adjective which indicates the highest degree, usually ending -est (greatest, prettiest)
Prepostions They typically indicate in some way how one thing is related to another. Examples vary from prepositions related to position (at, on, opposite) direction (into, past, to) time (before, during, after) Shows the relationship between the noun that comes after it and something else in the sentence.
Prepositional Phrases Small word phases which explain the position of nouns. They describe where the noun is. E.g: many creatures like UNDER THE SEA.
Syntax Explores how the words combine to form a sentence.
Morphology How parts of words combine with one another.
Main Verbs Is the single verb that expresses the main meaning.
Auxiliary Verbs Sometimes known as helping verbs - they are verbs that are placed in front of main verbs.
Primary Verbs be, have and do
Modal Auxiliaries Only ever used in conjunction with a main verb: can, will, shall, may, must, could, would, should, might.
Adverbs Give us more information about verbs. They describe verbs in almost the same way adjectives describe nouns. Many adverbs are formed by adding -ly to the end of adjectives.
Personal Pronouns They replace the subject or object of the sentence. I and he are examples of pronouns used to refer to the subject, me and him are examples that refer to the object.
Possessive Pronoun They show possession. Instead of saying this is Diego's we might say this is his. However words such as her, your and their are determiners rather than pronouns because they precede nouns rather than taking their place.
Reflexive Pronoun They indicate that the object of the verb is the same as its subject. 'he congratulated himself' They are easily recognised as they end in -self or -selves.
Demonstrative Pronouns A sense of pointing at something or someone: this, that, these. Used at the beginning of sentences.
Indefinite Pronouns These are pronouns that do not refer to specific persons or things. Examples include: someone, anything, no one and everything.
Relative Pronouns They act as linking words in a sentence. They are like other pronouns in that they refer to nouns and they are always placed immediately after the noun they refer to.
Interrogative Pronouns who, whose,which and what
Possessive determiners They precede nouns. my, our, your, his, her, its, their
Demonstrative Pronouns Precede nouns: this, that, these and those
Other determiners Refer to quantity - specifically - one, two, three and vaguely - some, few, many
Derivational Affix Affix where by one word is formed from another. The derived word is often of a different word class from the original.
Inflectional Affix Forms a gramatical variant of a word. e.g: the inflectional affix 'ed' changes something in to past tense. Inflectional - tense
Anaphoric Reference refers back to something e.g: will you please pick up the dry cleaning and put IT in the car. Provides cohesion and continuity. It avoids unnecessary repetition.
Cataphoric Reference Is it a bird? Is it a plane? No - it's Superman Something which is yet to be referred to - refer forward.
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