AQA GCSE Geography A: Coastal Zone Case Study Flashcards

Zoha Naser
Flashcards by , created over 2 years ago

Flashcards of case studies for the Coastal Zone unit of AQA GCSE Geography A :)

Zoha Naser
Created by Zoha Naser over 2 years ago
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Question Answer
Coastal Erosion at Swanage Bay, Dorset -Made up of sands and clays, clay, chalk and limestone -Headlands e.g. Peveril Point -Bays e.g. Durlston Bay -Cliffs e.g. Ballard Cliff -Arches -Stacks e.g. Old Harry Rocks
Coastal Deposition at Hurst Castle, Hampshire -A shingle spit located on the Hampshire coast close to the city of Southampton. -Henry VII built a castle near the tip to defend England; this castle is now a heritage site and tourist attraction. There also is: -A salt marsh (Keyhaven) -A beach -Channels e.g. Hawker's lake
Cliff Collapse at Barton-On-Sea, Hampshire Where is it? -Small settlement located along stretch of coastline in Christchurch Bay, Hampshire. -Over the years many buildings have been lost to cliff collapse and coastal erosion.
Cliff Collapse at Barton-On-Sea, Hampshire Why is it happening? -Rocks are weak sand and clays that are easily eroded. -Arrangement of rocks causes water to become stored in the cliff, adding to weight. -Buildings on cliff increase stress on cliff. -Rate of erosion at 2m per year -Faces the direct force of prevailing south-western winds so waves approaching are powerful -Several streams increase amount of water stored in the cliffs.
Cliff Collapse at Barton-On-Sea, Hampshire What has been done? -Extensive coastal defences built. -In 2008, a landslip occurred and it was predicted that houses 20m from the coast would be lost in 10-20 years. -Many inhabitants have left. -Those who remain may chose to live in caravans so they cane easily move their homes
Coastal Defences at Minehead, Somerset Where is it? Minehead is located on the north coast of Somerset and is one of the country's premier tourist resorts. There are many hotels, resorts (e.g. a Butlin's resort) and tourist attractions.
Coastal Defences at Minehead, Somerset Why is there a need for defence? -By the early 1990s it became clear that the sea defences at the time were inadequate. -Storm damages would cost £21 million if nothing was done.
Coastal Defences at Minehead, Somerset What defences are in place? -Work began in 1997 and finished in 2001, total cost was £12.3 million. -A 0.6m high sea wall with a curved top so people don't walk on it. -Rock armour at the base of the wall -Beach nourishment built beach height by 2m. -Four rock groynes -A wide walkway along the sea wall (adds to aesthetics and serves as a tourist attraction)
Coastal Defences: The Thames River Barrier, London What is it? -The River Thames is a 346 km long river that flows through most of southern England, including the capital, London. -It is the second longest river in the United Kingdom (after the River Severn) and is the longest river in England . -The barrier protects the city of London from the effects of coastal flooding as the fresh river water of the Thames is met by the high tides of the North Sea which can cause water levels of the river to vary by up to 7 meters. -The Thames Barriers were put up in 1982. -Were first built after the floods of 1953 that left approximately 300 people dead.
Coastal Defences: The Thames River Barrier, London What are the economic effects of flooding on London? -London is the capital of England and is therefore home to many different buildings tat would be expensive to restore or repair if flooded. -Businesses will suffer severe loss as London is an economic capital where 1.25 million people work. -Buildings worth £8 billion would be drowned.
Coastal Defences: The Thames River Barrier, London What are the social effects of flooding on London? -The city of London is home to an estimated 8.539 million people (as of 2014) and a flood will have a massive negative impact. -London is home to lots of multicultural communities who will suffer loses with a flood.
Coastal Defences: The Thames River Barrier, London What are the environmental effects of flooding on London? -There are approximately 125 types of fish that live in the Thames and flooding could cause damage to their habitat.
Coastal Defences: The Thames River Barrier, London The mechanics of the barrier -The barriers crosses a 520 meter section of the river. -Once in the closed position the gates are 20 meters high and can hold back 9,000 tonnes of water each -The Environmental Agency (EA) says the barrier has been raised 141 times since 1982, but the need is becoming more frequent. -It was closed more than 100 times since 2000 and 13 times in January 2014 alone. -The barriers should be replaced in about 2070 by another plan called Thames Estuary 2100.
Salt Marsh, The Keyhaven Marshes in Hampshire What is it? -An area of salt marsh formed in the lee of Hurst Castle Spit. -Supports a range of habitats including grassland, scrub, salt marsh and reed beds. -Home to many species e.g. cordgrass, sea lavender, the oystercatcher and the wold spider.
Salt Marsh, The Keyhaven Marshes in Hampshire Threats to the salt marsh -It is retreating by up to 6m per year. -The salt marsh has been under treat of being breeched by the Hurst Castle spit. -In December 1989, storms pushed part of the shingle ridge over the top of the salt marsh. This exposed 50-80m to the sea and it was eroded in under 3 months. -Increased tourism may wear away the salt marsh.
Salt Marsh, The Keyhaven Marshes in Hampshire How the salt marsh is being protected -In 1996, rock armour and beach nourishment were put in place to stop spit breaching. -The salt marsh is a SSSI (site of specific scientific interest) and is protected as a National Nature Reserve. -Tourism in the area is very carefully monitored to help maintain the rich biodiversity.