Geography Coasts Flash Cards

Elizabeth Nye
Flashcards by Elizabeth Nye, updated more than 1 year ago
Elizabeth Nye
Created by Elizabeth Nye over 3 years ago


Geography Flashcards on Geography Coasts Flash Cards, created by Elizabeth Nye on 05/25/2017.

Resource summary

Question Answer
1. What is the trough of the wave? 2. What is the crest of the wave? 3. What is the wave height? 4. What is the wave length? 1. The lowest point of the wave. 2. The highest point of the wave. 3. The height from the trough to the crest of the wave. 4. The distance from trough to trough.
How are waves formed? What does this have to do with wind? Through wind and friction. The longer and harder the wind the larger the waves.
What is the fetch of a wave? The distance the wave has travelled.
1. What is swash? 2. What is backwash? 1. The diagonal movement up the beach due to wind. 2. The downwards movement perpendicular to the beach because of gravity.
What are constructive waves? They are formed in calm weather and have a short wave height but a longer wave length. They have a shorter fetch and are low energy and a stronger swash than backwash. They build up beaches and create sloping beaches and are generally 6-8 waves per minute.
What are destructive waves? Destructive waves are high energy with a longer fetch that form under storm conditions. They are tall with a weak swash and a strong backwash that erodes the coast to form steep beaches. They generally 10-14 waves per minute.
What is coastal erosion? The wearing away of the land by the sea.
What are the four types of erosion? Corrosion (solution) Hydraulic Action Corrasion (abrasion) Attrition
What is corrosion? This is the chemical reaction between sea water and the minerals in the rocks-it dissolves the rocks away.
What is Hydraulic Action? This is the force of water hitting the cliff and squeezing air into the cracks in the rock, causing 'mini-explosions' due to pressure.
What is Abrasion? This is the force of bits of rock carried in the water being thrown against the cliff.
What is attrition? This is the process of rocks hitting each other and breaking into smaller, rounder rocks.
How are bays and headlands formed? The hard rock is more resistant to erosion. The soft rock will be eroded through hydraulic action and abrasion. This will erode in a circle as the waves spread around the hard rock creating bays and headlands due to wave refraction.
What is weathering? The decomposition of earth's rocks, minerals and soils through direct contact with the planet's atmosphere or natural plants/animals. There are three types.
What are the three types of weathering Biological-plants (tree roots)+animals (rabbits) Physical-freeze-thaw Chemical-acid rain.
What is mass-movement? The downward movement of earth caused by gravity and the weight of water. Fast falls at the coast are called slumping.
What is a wave cut notch? The waves erode away at the bottom of the cliff. This is the notch. The crest of the wave at high tide erodes the top of the notch and the crest of the wave at low tide erodes the bottom.
What is a wave cut platform? Once a wave cut notch becomes too big it decreases the stability of the cliff making it slump. The platform is where the cliff face has retreated.
What is Long shore drift? Long shore drift is the zig zag motion that is made because the backwash and swash pushing the object along the coastline.
What are the depositional landforms? A bar A lagoon A Spit Sand Dunes Salt marshes A Tombolo
How is a bar formed? A bar is where Longshore Drift has moved sand along the shoreline and in front of a lagoon. The current from the sea and the lagoon keep the Bar in place as it forms.
How is a lagoon formed? A closed area where the sea has eroded the coastline but a bar has formed blocking off the sea from the lagoon.
How is a spit formed? pt.1 Stage 1: Prevailing winds carry the Longshore Drift down the coast. Stage 2: At a bend in the coastline, deposition occurs due to increased friction.
How is a spit formed? pt 2 Stage 3: Sand and shingle are deposited and begin to extend outwards forming a spit Stage 4: The spit cannot grow across the estuary due to the velocity of the river.
How is a spit formed? pt 3 Stage 5: The wind returns to its usual direction and the spit continues to grow. Stage 6: A change in wind direction causes the end of the spit to curve in land (first time)
How is a spit formed? pt 4 Stage 7: Each time the wind direction changes a new hooked end end develops. These are called recurved laterals. Stage 8: Salt marshes develop in the sheltered water begin the spit
How are salt marshes formed? Stage 1: The tide comes and deposits sediment in sheltered areas like in a spit or a lagoon meaning the land form blocks the sediment. Stage 2: Over time, dirt, sand and mud build up into a salt marsh. Stage 3: The tide goes in and out keeping the marshland wet and muddy.
How are Tombolos formed? A spit that has joined up to an island.
What are Sand Dunes? Where sand has been deposited on the shore line and due to wind and plants they move further back away from the coastline. There are 5 stages/types
What are the five stages/types of sand dunes? Embryo Dune. Fore Dune. Yellow Dune. Grey Dune. Mature Dune.
What are halophytes? Salt tolerant plants.
What are the threats to salt marshes? Humans walking on them-erosion Over-grazing of animals-no where for prey to hide Coastal erosion-will erode away Pollution Invasion of cordgrasses-excessive agricultural use
Where can you find salt marshes? An example of a salt marsh is the Gulf Coast salt marshes in Florida. You can also generally find salt marshes in lagoons and behind spits.
What do salt marshes help to do? Protect wildlife and animals from predators Provide the shoreline protection from floods and storms They clean and filter water.
Where are coral reefs found? Coral reefs are found in tropical waters all over the world.
How is coral formed? Coral or polyps attaches itself to a hard surface. The coral then divides into thousands of clones.
What is coral bleaching? Coral bleaching is when the temperature increases so it bleaches the colour out of the coral.
What are the three types of coral reefs? Fringing reefs, Barrier reefs and atoll reefs
What is a fringing reef? Fringing reefs are found near the shorelines of islands or landmasses, They grow in coastal zones that are already protected by a larger barrier reef.
What is a barrier reef? Barrier reefs develop further from the shoreline, often separated from the land by a lagoon.
What is an atoll reef? Atoll reefs are associated with volcanic islands, They look similar to barrier reefs, but are found only around submerged oceanic islands.
What are the conditions for coral reefs to grow? Shallow, unpolluted, lots of sunlight, no algae on surface, clean water, warm water temperature, salt water.
What do coral reefs need for growth and why? Needs plenty of sunlight-photosynthesis Ideal temp is 23-25˚-no higher or coral bleaching will start to occur Ideal depth is up to 50m-not enough sunlight 30˚ latitude north + south-in the tropical zone-the warmest
What is good about mangrove swamps? They prevent erosion They provide nutrients They are the breeding grounds of 75% of fish
Where do mangroves form? Where the fresh water river meets the sea
CASE STUDY HOLDERNESS COAST Where is the Holderness Coast? The north-east of England in eastern Yorkshire. It is the fastest eroding coastline in the UK
CASE STUDY HOLDERNESS COAST What are the cliffs a Mappleton made out of? They are made out of Boulder Clay which is a soft rock and easy to erode
CASE STUDY HOLDERNESS COAST Between 1970 and 2000, how many houses have been lost into the sea? over 30 villages.
CASE STUDY HOLDERNESS COAST How far has the cliff face retreated since the roman times? How many meters per year does the sea erode? The cliff face has retreated 5 kilometres since the roman times. The coastline can retreat up to two meters per year
CASE STUDY HOLDERNESS COAST Why is this a problem for the people living on the Holderness coast? It is not easy to get house insurance as there is a very good chance of their house dropping into the sea.
CASE STUDY HOLDERNESS COAST What has the council done to improve the situation? The local authorities have spent £2 million on coastal defences (hard engineering). They have made groynes from rocks from Norway and built sea walls.
CASE STUDY HOLDERNESS COAST What problems have these coastal defences caused? The waves are refracting and and moving them southwards where all the farm land and gas terminals south of Mappleton are being eroded faster. At Withernsea they have used a sea wall, revetments, rock armour and groynes.
What are three types of hard engineering? Sea walls, Gabions and groynes.
What are two types of soft engineering? Beach nourishment and managed retreat.
What is a sea wall? A wall build on the edge of a coastline. Protects the base of cliffs, land and buildings Can prevent coastal flooding
What are some disadvantages of Sea walls? Expensive to build Curved sea walls reflect waves back at the sea-waves remain powerful Wall may begin to erode Cost of maintenance is high.
What are gabions? A cylinder filled with rocks. Smaller rocks make it more flexible and less easy to erode. You can use local beach materials.
What are the disadvantages of gabions? Unnatural appearance Unpleasant if mesh breaks Shorter lifespans Ongoing maintenance cost
What are groynes? wooden barriers built at right angles to the beach Protects from movement of beach material Allows build up of beach
What are the disadvantages of groynes? Unattractive Costly to build and maintain
What is beach nourishment? Adding sand to the beach Widens the beach and waves lose power traveling across it Looks natural Good for tourism
What is the disadvantage of beach nourishment? Doesn't last very long.
What is a managed retreat? Allowing nature to erode and flood Land becomes marsh Reduces erosion Creates new habitats
What are the disadvantages of managed retreats? Land is lost Angry residents
What is the definition of coastal erosion? The retreat of cliffs and coastline due to wave action/tropical storm/coastal flooding.
What is slumping? The slipping of cliffs due to heavy rainfall and coastal erosion.
What is hard engineering? Using man-made structures to defend the coastline.
What is soft engineering? Defences that involve working with natural processes.
What are the opportunities of living by a coastline? Seafood-good food supply, quiet, ports for trading-more jobs, cheaper to build on a coast, nice view, peaceful environment, quiet atmosphere, second homes, close to beaches, tourism, fresher air, water sports.
What are the conditions for a tropical storm to form? Needs 26.5˚c to cause evaporation Needs warm water Forms in the tropics Water should be deep/deeper than 70 metres.
What are three other names for tropical storms? Hurricanes Cyclones Typhoons
What is the first stage of forming a hurricane? The warm air from thunderstorms and the deep, warm ocean surface (greater than 26.5 degrees C and 70m) mix together and start to rise to create low pressure.
What is the second stage of forming a hurricane? Trade winds at the equator cause the storm to spin due to Earth's Coriolis effect/force.
What is the third stage of forming a hurricane? Air continues to rise and the pressure starts to decrease at higher altitudes
What is the fourth stage of forming a hurricane? Air rises faster and draws in more warm air from the sea surface whilst sucking cooler air downwards.
What is the fifth stage of forming a hurricane? As the storm moves over the ocean, it picks up more warm moist air. The speed of its winds increases as more air is sucked in.
What is the sixth stage of forming a hurricane? It can take hours or days to fully form a hurricane. Thy eye has calm winds which are surrounded by a spinning vortex of high winds and heavy rain.
CASE STUDY HURRICANE KATRINA When did Hurricane Katrina hit? Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans on the 29th May 2005.
CASE STUDY HURRICANE KATRINA Where did Hurricane Katrina hit? New Orleans, Louisiana, South Eastern USA
CASE STUDY HURRICANE KATRINA What happened when FEMA there was going to be a hurricane? Some people gathered their belongings and left their homes but most chose to stay in their houses and thought that they could wait it out. 1 million people left their homes.
CASE STUDY HURRICANE KATRINA What was the poverty rate in New Orleans? New Orleans had a 23% Poverty rate.
CASE STUDY HURRICANE KATRINA What did the red cross do to help people choosing to stay? They stockpiled 10s of 1000s of litres of water, MREs and military rations. They also stockpiled pop-tarts because they have a long expiry date.
CASE STUDY HURRICANE KATRINA What did FEMA do? They predicted and tracked Hurricane Katrina using satellite imagery. They tracked it from off the south-eastern Bahamas where it was a Category 1 storm to when it hit New Orleans as a Category 5 hurricane (On the saffir-simpson scale).
CASE STUDY HURRICANE KATRINA What were some of the characteristics of New Orleans? 1/2 million people lived there approximated 100,000 people didn't have private transportation (almost 20%) was mostly below sea-level was near the gulf of Mexico had levées built to withstand a Cat 3 storm surge.
CASE STUDY HURRICANE KATRINA What were some of the characteristics of New Orleans? pt.2 The Mississippi river ran through it. Had a huge lake. Many people relied on welfare cheques and as it was the end of the month most people were running out of money.
CASE STUDY HURRICANE KATRINA What did the senator do a few days before the storm? She imposed a 6pm curfew and later imposed a mandatory evacuation. There were busses that picked people up from four points around the city.
CASE STUDY HURRICANE KATRINA What happened to the people who couldn't afford or couldn't reach the busses? They were evacuated to the Superdome while emergency services helped to move people and supplies. (Around 10,000 people were in the Superdome)
CASE STUDY HURRICANE KATRINA When the storm hit how fast were the winds? The winds were 280 km/h or 175 mph.
CASE STUDY HURRICANE KATRINA How much of New Orleans was flooded? 80% of New Orleans was flooded.
CASE STUDY HURRICANE KATRINA What contributed to the flooding on New Orleans? There was a 14-17 foot storm surge. The levées were only built to withstand a Cat 3 storm surge (about 9-12 feet). However, the huge storm surge started to erode away the levées. The large winds and rain also flooded the large lake in the city and caused the Mississippi to spill its banks.
CASE STUDY HURRICANE KATRINA What was some of the effects of Hurricane Katrina? It left 1 million people homeless as most of the houses were old and made of wood. Blackouts and power-cuts meant they couldn't call for help.
CASE STUDY HURRICANE KATRINA What happened while they were in the Superdome? The Superdome's roof was build to withstand sustained winds of 150mph and wind gusts of up to 200mph but together with the combined wind and rain they 'peeled off' sections of the roof and flooding areas.
CASE STUDY HURRICANE KATRINA How were they rescued? They were rescued by helicopter and by boat.
CASE STUDY HURRICANE KATRINA Hurricane Katrina is often referred to as what and why? Hurricane Katrina is often referred to as on of the most expensive weather disasters ever with damage costing us to USD$81 billion
CASE STUDY HURRICANE KATRINA How many deaths did Hurricane Katrina cause? How many people were missing? Hurricane Katrina caused 1,836 deaths and many other people to be injured. 705 people were reported missing.
CASE STUDY HURRICANE KATRINA What happened as a result of the flooding? As a result of the flooding, all of New Orleans agricultural services were destroyed so they weren't able to grow food to help support the survivors and they couldn't buy food from stores as most of them were submerged.
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