Sprog i mundtlige kontekster

Jonas Klint Westermann
Flashcards by Jonas Klint Westermann, updated more than 1 year ago
Jonas Klint Westermann
Created by Jonas Klint Westermann almost 7 years ago


Flashcards on Sprog i mundtlige kontekster, created by Jonas Klint Westermann on 05/27/2014.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Bottom-up processing Listening to individual sounds to create a meaning
Top-down processing Listening to overall meaning, use background knowledge to create an expectation of what it must mean
Main steps in listening process 1: Listen to intonation 2: Respond to stressed vowels 3: Listen to consonant sounds 4: Find the whole pattern
What are the first things listeners pay attention to? 1: Stress and intonation
Explain difference between hearing and listening Hearing: Physical ability to detect sounds Listening: Determining and encoding the messages sent
Internal vs external noise Internal noise: Anything internal, e.g. matters of personal life External: Regular noise, e.g. cell phone, cars
Expain informational, critical and empathetic listening Informational: Focus on the content of the message Critical: Be critical of the message sent, have to evaluate the content. Empathetic: Listening from a neutral p.o.v., without judgement. E.g. customer compliant
Explain listening styles 1: People-orientated: Concern for other people 2: Action-orientated: Direct, short, error-free communication 3: Content-orientated: Interested in complex info 4: Time-orientated: Brief, concise, to the point
What must a professional language user be able to? 1: Information processing 2: Discourse patterns 3: Pragmatic conventions 4: Cultural stumble blocks 5: Factual, professional information 6: Self-correction
Linguistic competence Linguistic competence1: Sounds, intonation 2: Grammar, syntax 3: Vocabulary
Discoursal competence 1: Ability to combine grammatical forms and meaning 2: Cohesion og coherence 3: Fillers, Gambits, discourse markers
Pragmatic competence 1: Social context, rhetorical situation, relationship to target audience 2: Produce, understand communication in different sociolinguistic contexts 3: Speech acts
Strategic competence Strategic competence1: Ability to solve communication problems 2: Coping strategies 3: Reaching communicative goal despite insufficient competence
What are the five aspects that help us analyze a genre? (Yates and Orlikowski) 1: Purpose (why?) 2: Content (what?) 3: Form (how?) 4: Time (when?) 5: Place (where?)
Provide examples of oral genres 1: Wedding speech 2: Political debate 3: Company presentation 4: Public announcement 5: Interview 6: ...
What are the main types of speech acts? 1: Locution (meaningful). E.g. "Emma eat" 2: Illocution. The intention of the speaker. Complaint, request, etc 3: Perlocution: The effect. If you made another person get you a glass of water = Perlocution
Difference between indirect and direct speech acts Direct: No hidden meaning behind the sentence. Indirect: Hidden meaning behind the sentence. E.g. "it's cold in here --> open the window"
Speech act classifications (Searle) 1: Declarations: Changing the world "I pronounce you husband and wife" 2: Representatives: Speaker's beliefs "You are now husband and wife" 3: Expressives "Congratulations on your 12 grade" 4: Speaker's wants: "Could you please help me" 5: Commisives: Speaker's commitment to the future "I'll let you know as soon as he arrives"
Examples of up-takers Marking the beginning: Allright, and, but, now, so, well, etc. Set phrases: Good morning, thank you for coming, etc.
Examples of turn-takers Marking the turn of floor Agreements: Yes Disagreements: But, but still, no, so Questions: So
Example of fillers and hesitors Fillers: Filling the space, time to think Examples: I think, and so on, but, for example, i think, namely, etc Hesitors: Used to hold the floor. Examples: Repitions, Er, Erm, Uhm, so well, etc
Types of news programmes 1: The bulletin: Snapshot of the day's news (3-5 min) 2: News programmes: Broader view 3: Documentary: Topical issue in greater depth 4: Documentary styles: Drama, reconstruction, features (7 min) 5: Vérité: As close to the truth as possible. Fly on the wall 6: 24 hour news, e.g. CNN, BBC, TV2NEWS
Types of interviews 1: Hard news - short, to the point 2: Informational - Beyond the main point, show the how's and why's 3: Investigative - What really caused the events? 4: Adversarial - War of words, cross examination 5: Personal - Revealing personality profile 6: Interpretive - Explanation + analysis 7: Emotional - Human angle, personal tragedies 8: Entertainment - makes us smile 9: Actuality only - Without the reporters voice 10: Vox pop - random people on the street
What is a lingua franca? Language used over a large geographical area
Explain the three circles of English as a Lingua Franca Inner circle: English as L1 (mother tongue), e.g. USA, UK Outer circle: English as L2, e.g. India, Singapore Expanding circle: English NOT as L1, L2 or official language. E.g. China, Russia
What three aspects are important in ELF interaction for non-native speakers to understand you? 1: All consonant sounds 2: Vowel length 3: Nuclear stress
What is face? The public self-image of a person
What is politeness? To show awareness of another person's face
What is positive face? To include, make someone be part of the group E.g. "You look sad - can I do anything?" Attend to X's needs/wants, use in-group identity markers, be optimistic, include both speaker and hearer in activity, offer or promise, interest in x's interests, avoid disagreements, jokes
What is negative face? Being independent, desire to remain autonomous E.g. be indirect "Would you know where Oxford street is?" Be pessimistic, minimize the imposition (request), be overly polite, use plural pronouns
What is intercultural communication? Communication between different cultures, countries, companies, genders, generations, etc
Main aspects of socio-cultural competence Social competence: Verbal (small talk), non-verbal (polite behaviour) Cultural competence: Knowing about the culture and topic Language competence: Language as lingua france, etc
What does it mean to be culturally intelligent? Ability to interpret someone's cultural gestures and mirror them if need be
Cultural intelligence according to Søderberg Cognitive dimension: Knowledge about culture Emotional dimension: Presence, empathy, reflections about both cultures Behavioral dimension: Establish contact, communicate from shared platform
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