Zoo Animal Health

serenacutbill
Flashcards by serenacutbill, updated more than 1 year ago
serenacutbill
Created by serenacutbill over 7 years ago
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Zoo Animals (Health) Flashcards on Zoo Animal Health, created by serenacutbill on 05/18/2013.
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Question Answer
Health and Safety of Staff Health & Safety Executive produced "Health and Safety for Zoos" http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/web15.pdf
Laws Animal Welfare Act 2006 Zoo Licensing Act 1981 SSSMZP Animal Health Act 2002 (have to report notifiable disease to DEFRA)
What is 'good health'? Animals may not always show poor health - prey species Good health requires regular monitoring (of body measurements) Examining records could indicate disease
How can health be assessed? 1. Loss of appetite/reduced water intake Can be difficult to monitor in group Observe at 'feeding times' Monitor weight, lethargy 2. Changes in behaviour Isolation from group Changes from normal Coughing Shaky on feet
3. Change in faeces and urine Hard F+, straining-constipation Loose F+-diarrhoea Changes in colour-cloudy Amount produced 4. Posture and gait Hunched, lameness Grinding teeth, shifting weight Unwilling to stand or move
5. Vomiting Not all species can V+ When does animals V+ - after food, after water, certain time Any blood present in V+ 6. Obvious signs of pain Changes in posture, gait (freq) Vocalisation, Aggression Licking, biting, chewing, grinding teeth Rolling, kicking, restlessness
6. Obvious signs of pain 2 Breathing - shallow, tachypnoea, dyspnoea Twitching, muscle spasm, straining Lethargic, depression Sleeplessness, lying motionless 7. Changes in colour/appearance of mm Should be pink in mouth Pale - anaemia Blue - low 02 in blood
8. TPR Need to know normal for species Changes from normal indicate ill health Zoo Health can be compromised v. little research on poor enclosure effect on health Assumed it does - physically and mentally
Stress causes immunosuppression Fighting between animals Wrong diet, Disease from pests Ill health from foreign objects Visitors littering Genetic diseases Could be argued they have better health than wild: Preventative medicine Veterinary treatment Better diet No risk of predation
Keepers role in animals health: Key role Notice slight changes Vet staff work closely with keepers Also involved in handling and restraint
Preventative care: 1. Correct diet Should have correct nutrition Often keepers and vets will discuss nutrition To ensure good health 2. Hygiene Regular poo picking Use of disinfectants in enclosure Use of power hoses should be minimal Washing/sanitising hands & equipment
3. Parasite Control Endoparasites: Helminths (Nematodes, Platyhelminths, Cestodes, Trematodes) Ectoparasites: Flies, Lice, Fleas, Mites, Ticks 4. Pest Control Vectors - e.g. rats, mice, birds, insects, larger mammals Face ethical problem - kill pests? Using inhumane poisons Traps
5. Enclosure Design Safety, Injury Ventilation, Drainage Humidity, Lighting 6. Regular health checks Weight, Body score/condition Eyes, nose, backend Mouth, Teeth
7. Vaccination No vaccs specifically designed for zoo animals Make do with vaccs from CA and LA 8. Quarantine and Isolation New stock: time depends on species (Equids-30days, Primates-60-90days) Sick stock: need adequate facilities, away from others, access
9. Foot Care Most common issue in captive animals Check regularly for overgrowth, injuries, abscesses, cracks in hooves/soles 10. Post Mortem Cause of death may be infectious Keeping records can identify long-term issues
Treatment Can be stressful - capture, restraint, procedure, reintro into group May be better to leave animal alone Vets and keepers carefully decide action taken Alternatives used - meds in food
Managing pain Assessing pain is difficult Ethical duty to reduce pain Given orally, topically or via inj I/m drugs given via dart gun
Managing pain Assessing pain is difficult Ethical duty to reduce pain Given orally, topically or via inj I/m drugs given via dart gun
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