Geography A2 case studies

A K
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Flashcards on Geography A2 case studies, created by A K on 06/02/2014.
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UDZUNGWA MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK TANZANIA Pristine management area - 50 endemic tree species, 55 mammal species, rich in birds and plants. - Provides watershed protection, medicine, food. - Characterised by sustainable bottom up strategies: tree nurseries, fuel efficient stoves, rice husk tech to replace fuel wood. - Agriculture diversification: bee keeping, poultry, veg farming, medical plants - Non-farm projects: Establishing micro business, ecotourism, improving health/education.
MASAI MARA GAME RESERVE KENYA Degraded management area - Breakdown in management, decline of grassland ecosystems. - Tourist park fees did not reach intended destination; park rangers not properly payed, lacking in equipment (e.g. 4x4s, BC radios). - Widespread hunting of game. - Mara conservation est. 2008 from $300,000 foreign donation. 50% finances anti-poaching, road construction, 50% to local tribes. - Tribes must be supported - land had to be given up, and a future in tourism is unlikely.
SOUFRIERE MARINE MANAGEMENT AREA (SMMA) ST LUCIA Protected management area - SMMA created 1995. - Number of issues: Degradation of coastal water quality, depletion of near shore fish reserves, loss of economic/scientific/recreational potential for coral reefs, degradation of beach landscape due to hotel development, pollution from rubbish disposal, yacht anchor damage, sedimentation of reefs. - SMMA divided into 5 zones - Funding from Caribbean Conservation Association, ENCORE project, French government. - Reduction of stakeholder conflict, increase in fish biomass has resulted.
CAMPFIRE PROJECT ZIMBABWE Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources - Developed in the late 80s for long term development of natural resources. - Responsibility placed with locals - direct benefit from exploitation of resources. - Bottom up strategies varied locally, with back up and advice from authorities. - Variation in use of wildlife species: Meat, live capture for sale, big game hunting, photographic safari, fishing... - Big game hunting at sustainable yields, money fed back for common good. - Failed with collapse of Zimbabwe: Land takeovers, poaching, lack of staff/funding...
INVASIVE SPECIES IN THE UK - Japanese knotweed: £150m in damage annually, chokes water bodies, overruns sites. - American signal crayfish: Out-competes native white clawed crayfish - American Mink: Linked to dramatic decline in native water voles. - Creepy water primrose: takes over waterways.
MOUNTAINS OF CENTRAL ASIA Biodiversity hotspot - Variety of ecosystems: Desert, semi desert, steppe, spruce forest, juniper forest, alpine/sub-alpine meadows. - 1500 endemic plants, eagles, falcons, snow leopards, 6 endemic mammals, 5 endemic freshwater fish etc. - Conflict (Afghan War, break up of USSR, 1990s Tajik civil conflict) make area unstable. Minefields threaten larger animals. - Poaching: 75% reduction in snow leopards since 1990 in Kyrgyzstan. - Overgrazing and deforestation due to lack of fuel alternatives. - 20% of original habitat in pristine condition, 20% reduction in glaciers due to global warming. - 7% now under protection, regional red list created to coordinate assessments, with funding from donors such as WWF. - Recent political summits discussed raising education, promoting ecotourism.
KORUP NATIONAL PARK CAMEROON Conservation models - Most species rich rainforest in Africa, so far escaped deforestation. - Creation involved NGOs such as WWF: Unbiased, helped mitigate corruption. - Benjamin Itoe, Tourist minister: Natural ecosystems have "a vital role in preserving the environment, fostering scientific research and enhancing tourism development." - National target to preserve 20% of land. - Park promotes education, creates alternative income for those dependent on hunting, involves infrastructure and health improvements to help local inhabitants. - Some settlements forced to relocate, creating a feeling of ill will. Locals had to be persuaded and involved. Funding was required.
GALAPAGOS ISLANDS ECUADOR Biodiversity under threat - More frequent and stronger El Ninos: In the 82/83 event, no albatross and only 25% of penguin chicks hatched successfully. - Alien species: Rats (eat bird eggs/young), feral pigs (eat bird/turtle eggs), wild dogs (wiped out colony of 500 land iguanas), goats (overgrazing). - Tourism: increase from 1,000 to 70,000 + pa. since the mid 60s. - Illegal fishing: 800+ small fisheries, as well as commercial enterprises. In 2002, a Colombian vessel was stopped with 50 dead dolphins. - Jan 2001: "Jessica" ran aground with 240,000 gallons of fuel. Effects limited. - Zoning/access strategies, aims to reduce population have been introduced.
ARAL SEA KAZAKHSTAN/UZBEKISTAN Over-exploitation of water - Planners in USSR diverted water from the Syr darya and Amu Darya to irrigate land for cotton and rice. - Inefficient canals: 70% of water leaked out/evaporated. - "White Gold" cotton makes Uzbekistan one of the world's largest exporters. - In 2007, Aral at 10% of original size. Aralsk now 100km from the sea. - 160,000 previously employed in fishing industry. Shrinking water = high salinity, huge unemployment, mass migration. Negative spiral effect closes shops and services. - Local climate affected: hotter summers, cooler winters. Animals died or migrated. - Toxic storms 400x40km from chemical and sewage residue. TB, cancer, anaemia, kidney, eye and liver issues result. Infant mortality is 75/1000 and maternal mortality 12/1000. - Kokaral Dam funded by World Bank increased water levels in North Aral by 10m. 80 fishing boats now operate, catching 24,000 tonnes annually. $10m processing plant built in Aralsk. - Improvements in irrigation with lined canals, drip irrigation. - Plans to develop Kazakh agriculture with crops like alfafa/maize. Planting drought resistant plants helps local climate. - Uzbekistan searching for oil and gas on sea bed, plans to reinvest in agriculture. - Kakaral dam means Eastern basin has now disappeared.
CALIFORNIA USA Physical factors influencing water stress - Mountain chains prevent moist air moving inland. Airflow from the Pacific forced up over the Sierra Nevada to create relief rainfall and snow. - Most rain (up to 500mm) falls in narrow coastal zone 250km wide. South and far east regions (incl. Death Valley, Mojave Desert) receive less than 100mm due to rain shadow effect of mountains. - Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers flow north/south respectively, providing water for agricultural and urban use. - Nearly 1/3rd of fresh water comes from over-exploited aquifers. - El Nino events = risk of flooding, La Nina = drought. - 50% of rain falls between November and March. Population is concentrated in specific areas. - Demand exceeds supply: population was 27.7m in 2007, could increase to 50m by 2050.
CHINA Economic development and water source degradation - China possesses 8% of the world's fresh water for 1.35bn people. Water stress levels expected by 2030. - Damming controversial since communist take over in 1949. - Industrial pollution: Toxins (e.g ammonia, cyanide) dumped in river systems. Laws are unenforced meaning of China's 7 main river systems, 58% of water is 3 or worse - unfit for human consumption, and 28% is graded 4 - unfit for any use. - 278 of China's 662 major cities have no sewage treatment plants. Less than half the waste water pumped into the ocean is treated, though $41bn was invested between 06/10. - China suffers the worst desertification in the world according to Xinhua, affecting 400 million. Logging, over grazing, over farming and "needless water use" major causes, costing $6.5bn annually. - South-North diversion project is the world's largest hydro-electric engineering scheme which could cost up to $62bn. 44.8bn cubic metres of water will be diverted annually in an effort to solve drought, but risks upsetting sedimentation, creating migrants, and wasting vast amounts of water.
3 GORGES DAM CHINA, YANGTZE RIVER Economic development and ecosystem degradation - Affords protection from flooding: 1998 floods killed 4000, displaced 14 million and cost $24bn. - Produces 22.5 Gw of power, equivalent to 10 nuclear power stations. Saves 30 million tonnes of coal annually, accounts for 10% of China's energy. - Navigation improved on the Yangtze: 500t ships can reach Chongquing all year, 1000t ships for 6 months. - Dam construction involved western companies, but half of the turbines had to be manufactured in China. - 1.3 million people were displaced, and farmers not properly compensated due to land tenure. In Yunyang, 20,000 left unemployed due to flooding. - A 2000 survey found almost all households suffered and increase in unemployment. - Earthquakes threaten safety. 822 tremors recorded, Sept. 2006. - Pollution has caused algal blooms. Baji River Dolphin already extinct, many more likely to follow. - 1 trillion tonnes of sewage pumped into river annually accumulates behind reservoir. Flooding of 1600 factories and mines also damage water quality. - Massive drop in phytoplankton downstream due to changes in sedimentation. Fish catches in the East China Sea could reduce by 1 million tonnes. - Estimated 12% of budget embezzled: Total unofficial cost is $88bn.
EUPHRATES RIVER Transnational water issues - Euphrates 90% Turkish supplied. Tigris River also rises here. - Turkish irrigation is south east Anatolia could reduces Syrian and Iraqi shares of the Euphrates by 40% and 60% respectively. - Ataturk Dam completed in 1990, reduced flow by 50% to 16 cubic kilometres/year. -Syria's actions no better than Turkey - Iraq threatened to bomb its Thawra Dam at Taqaba in 1974. - 1998: Syria and Iraq agree to work against Turkey and boycott companies involved in Turkish damming project, GAP. - Ultimately, 22 dams could be built on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers to provide irrigation and HEP. Benefits likely to go to rich landowners, rather than the poor. - World Bank refused to finance Turkey's Ilisu Dam on the Tigris with social, environmental and political concerns. Turkey can control Iraqi and Syrian supplies, giving political leverage.
RIVER JORDAN River management - Dams, canals and pumping stations by Israel, Syria and Jordan have reduced flow by 90% to 100 million cubic metres. - Per capita, Jordan has some of the smallest water resources in the world. By 2025, availability will fall from 200 to 91 cubic metres per person. 1000 cubic metres is considered water poor. - Farming uses at least 80% of the Middle East's water. Rising standards of living and population growth will increase demand. - Cities such as Amman ration supplies. Unrationed water from tankers is too expensive for the poor. - 1995 peace treaty between Israel and Jordan called for rehabilitation of river. Little done. - Israel has agreed to provide Jordan with 150 cubic metres per year. - Solutions include using the Litani and Awali rivers in Lebanon, cutting back on agriculture and creating a regional water market.
ISRAEL Transnational water issues - 120,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank use about 60 million cubic metres of water annually, compared to 137 million cubic metres by the 1.5 million West Bank Arabs. - Settlers irrigate 70% of their land, compared to 6% of Palestinian land. - Israelis use 3-4x more water per head than Palestinians. - Gazans supplied with little from Israel's national water carrier, must rely on an over exploited aquifer. Gazans pump 2x more than is safe - saltwater intrusion is enough to kill citrus trees.
COLORADO RIVER US SOUTH WEST, MEXICO Transnational water issues - River system heavily dammed: 15 on the main stem, hundreds more on tributaries. Provides irrigation, municipal water and HEP for 36 million, and regulates river flow. - Demand exceeds supply: In California, natural water sources could only sustain 2 million of the 15 million inhabitants. - Trans-boundary issues affect US and Mexico, where river delta entirely dried up: loss of vital habitats, mudflats, delta, delta jungle - Unique bird species disappeared, jaguar, deer and fish, important food source for indigenous peoples in Mexico. 10% of original delta wetlands remain. - 90% of water extracted before Mexican border, the rest just inside. 50 years since the river met the sea. - Loss of tourism in some areas, and fisheries forced to close in the Mexican delta. Water accounts for 2/3rd of Californian farmer's overheads. -1.4 million hectares of farmland irrigated. The Californian economy is now the world's 6th largest. - Native Americans can still claim "senior rights." Native rights not written into the Colorado Compact, necessitating federal intervention in recent years. - Colorado River Compact (includes Mexico) renegotiated in 2007 following prolonged drought. Pressure on authorities to reduce consumption - sprinkler systems, piped water, lining canals etc. - California and southern water authorities agreed to the Quantification Settlement in 2003, to last 75 years, and reduce reliance on the Colorado, limit consumption and provide provisions for the Salton Sea.
WATER IN THE AMERICAN SOUTH WEST Water stress/management - Human factors increasing demand: increasing domestic/industrial water footprints, expansion of irrigated cropland, rapid urbanisation in the desert sunbelt. - Human factors reducing supply: over abstraction from aquifers, legal action over transfers, ageing water infrastructure. - Physical factors: Drought, climate change, reduction of Sierra Nevada snowpack. - The Salton Sea has become a sink for agricultural runoff - eutrophication, algal blooms and massive fish die offs. Pollution from pesticides, sewage and increasing salinity (25% higher than the Pacific) exacerbate issues. - The sea supports 350 bird species. Plans to clear the lack could take 75 year and cost $9bn. - Southern Nevada Water Authority has pushed for water conservation, reducing use by 25% on 1990 levels by 2004. Water bill rebates for replacing turf with desert landscaping, introducing smart car washes, irrigation and pool covers. - Desalination of sea water would require a plant in CA, and cost $9-10bn + $400 million per year.
RAJASTHAN, INDIA Sustainable water solutions in transnational economies - Economic causes of pressure: Industrialisation, agrarain sector, degradation of local water systems, tourism (tourists use 880l/day, compared locals 250l). Social causes of pressure: Pop. growth (1.6%), improving lifestyles (a cup of coffee requires 140l, a pair of shoes 8000l), transnational demand, urbanisation. - Environmental causes of pressure: climate change (sever drought, notably in 01/02), glacier reduction, pollution, wetlands are increasingly developed. - Rajasthan is India's driest region, with 5% of the population, 1% of surface water resources. Poverty is rife (558 deaths/1000 births) and groundwater (providing 90% of drinking water) is shrinking. - Top down, large scale solutions (e.g.) dams can cause conflict (e.g. potential water wars, Kashmir dam) - Low tech, bottom up, sustainable solutions: Taankas hold 20,000l, village ponds easily polluted so can provide for animals and irrigation, persian wheels (animal driven) draw water from reservoirs, terracing catches runoff.
CHINA Foreign Direct Investment - Chinese govt. has backed over 1,700 aid and development projects in Africa since 2000 - totaling £48bn in aid. - Only $16bn counts as official development assistance under OECD rules. - Foreign aid activities state secrets - deemed a "charm offensive." - In Liberia, $millions given for solar traffic lights in monrovia, finance of a malaria prevention centre. - Mozambique: Funding for National School of Visual Arts, Maputo. - Algeria: Construction has begun on a 1400 seat opera house in Algiers. - Deborah Brautigam, John Hopkins Uni: "These are all about diplomacy, about soft power... All about presenting China as an important global player. All the big countries do this." - Official investment does not go to countries maintaining diplomatic relations with Taiwan. - Official Chinese African policy, released 2006, encourages exchange and cooperation with media outlets. Beijing has financed rapid expansion here. - Total outflow FDI from China $509bn in 2012. - In 2010, China Petrochemical bought a 40% share in Repsol for $7.1bn and a 9.3% stake in Syncrude Canada, involved in tar sands, for $4.7bn. In 2012 Petrogal Brazil was acquired for $4.8bn. - Chinese deal for 400,000 hectares of Sudanese land in 2010, and in 2013, Xinjiang Production and Construction Corporation (semi military govt. group) paid $3bn for 3 million hectares, 5%, of Ukraine's land. - Total global Chinese real estate investments was $3bn in 2013.
BRIC(S) COUNTRIES Rise of new superpowers - Coined by Jim O'Neil in 2001 - the 4 major national emerging economies. - China/India predicted dominant suppliers of global manufactured goods/services, Russia/Brazil dominant suppliers of raw materials. - 1st official meet, Sept. 2006. Official association included South Africa since 2010. - Economies of the 4 could overtake the G7 by 2027 - Goldman Sachs estimates by 2050. - Average GDP broth 3.56% in 2012. - By 2020, Brazil, Russia, India, China will have a 23.5% share of the global economy. The US and UK will have a 23.6% share. - BRIC economies sustained high growth throughout the 2008 recession (except maybe Russsia) and all 4 are in the top 10 for currency reserves, 40% of the world total. - Organisation a way to convert economic power into combined political influence: Brazil has strong regional aspirations, Russia has desires to return as a hydro-carbon based superpower, India desires greater recognition (e.g. security council seat), China sees it as a safe means of asserting their global power. - Critics say the group is too loosely coupled: 3/5 are nuclear states, and only Russia/China have security council seats. - Rivalry between Brazil and China/India for African Influence. China seems to dominate all economically. - India has had issues in Pakistan/Kashmir, has a dual economy and infrastructural issues. - Russia suffers from an ageing population, falling life expectancy, rising poverty. - Brazil has only seen recent growth with trade surplus and liquidation of foreign debt. - Benefit: The BRICS are not seen as neo-colonialists/imperialists in Africa as yet.
BRITISH EMPIRE Historical superpowers - World dominance, 1700-1930s. Navy provided vegicle to link colonies to Britain, and an important deterrant. - 1922: Rules 1/5 of the world's population (458 million), 1/4 of total landmass. - MERCENTILIST PHASE: 1600-1850. Beginning of imperialism, small colonies set up on coastal islands/fringes (e.g. Jamaica). Focus on trade (slaves, raw materials). Private companies (e.g. East India Company) defended by British forces. - IMPERIALIST PHASE: 1850-1945. Coastal colonies extented inland to create wholescale conquest of territories. British culture, language, religion (part of evangelist ideologies) introduced. Government institutions set up to rule. Trade networks become more complex with help of tech (railways, telegraph). Elements of social darwinism underly the empire. - DECOLONISATION: 1945-. WW2 leaves UK bankrupt, unable to support colonies. Independence movements and focus on post-war reconstruction mean most colonies independent by 1970. Small legacy remains.
USSR Changing superpower geographies - Historically dominant during Cold War era (47-91), part of bipolar world with USA. - Collapse of USSR symbolised by fall of Berlin Wall. Victor Sebestyen argues this was due to 3 reasons: - Economic (low oil prices bankrupt communist system) - Military (49 yrs containment by USA, defeat in Afghanistan) - Cultural (corruption of organised crime, loss of faith in communism).
RUSSIA Changing superpower geographies - Economic power: Poverty in decline since 2000 (40% below poverty line in 1998, now <13%). 2008 recession had little effect (2011 GDP growth 3rd at 4.2%). However, GDP remains low (17% of the USA), few TNCs and economy reliant on oil/gas/mining. - Military power: 4th largest standing army. Only 1/7th of the US's aircraft, and 1 aircraft carrier, but space program funded until 2040. The Prague Treaty (2010) reduces nuclear weapon arsenal from 1700-1500. - Cultural power: Marxism/Leninism proved powerful influence, but a lack of power today. No brands in the interbrand top 100 or media companies in global top 10. - Political power: permanent seat on UN Security Council, NATO allies have access to bases. Many European countries depend on Russia for oil and gas. - Major issues for future power: Human rights concerns (e.g. gay rights, Sochi Olympics). Putin won dubious 3rd presidential term in 2012, criticised for procedural irregularities. Protest group, Pussy Riot, imprisoned for demonstrations. - Some hope for future: Putin has attracted high levels of HDI, and has plans for a Eurasian union. 13% flat tax rate introduced in 2001, increasing state revenues. Majority of foreign debts repaid by 2006. 3rd largest exchange reserves from oil revenue and increasing manufacturing industry (grew by 7%, 2011).
USA Present day superpower - GDP (nominal): $16.8trn. Per capita: $52,850 - Vast energy reserves: 5900bn cubic metres natural gas, 35bn barrels oil, 271bn short tonnes of recoverable coal. Coal reserves are larger than remaining oil and natural gas IBM, GE, Disney, HP, McDonalds, Visa, etc. - Military power: 1.5 million personnel (170,000 deployed worldwide in over 150 countries). Budget is 4.4% of GDP at $682bn and accounts for 1/2 the world's total spend. "Full spectrum dominance," funding of foreign militaries (e.g. Egypt, Pakistan), sale of weapons to foreign nations, over 5,000 nuclear weapons. - Seat on UN security council, member of NATO, World Bank, IMF.
BRAZIL Emerging superpowers - Reestablishment of democracy, 1985. "Real Plan" (1993) reduced hyperinflation, repaid foreign currency debt. President Lula Da Silva (2002-2010) introduced large rises in minimum wages, pensions, expended unis and technical schools. - Now politically/economically stable. 20m Brazilians out of poverty since 2003. 7th largest economy. - Huge potential for HEP (70 dams planned for Amazon region), 500% increase in cropland possible. - Manufacturing/service: Accounted for 30.8% of GDP in 2008 (aircraft, cars, textiles etc). Embraer example of TNC - "Sinews of economic power." - Tech transfer from core economies vital for future growth. Brazil won't buy foreign arms without receiving new tech for its military and to enhance civilian companies. - Brazil founding member of several international institutions, e.g. UN, G20, Latin Union. - Issues for the future: Ease of business rank 130. Controversy over 2014 World Cup.
INDIA Emerging superpowers - World's largest democracy. 8% annual GDP growth, could become leading power as soon as 2060. By 2050, predicted world's 2nd largest economy after China. - Numerous successes in recent years: rising middle class, literacy rates, and opportunities for female education. Strong outward FDI (e.g. Jaguar Land Rover), Decreasing flow of foreign aid (The UK deems India "too strong"), world leader in frugal engineering (e.g. Nano cars, low-cost heart/eye surgery). - Significant challenges in becoming a superpower/TIGER: Financial sector small, underdeveloped. Markets need to liberalise to generate FDI for infrastructure, retail, energy (India 80% energy insecure). - Poor performance in 2008 recession compared to other BRICs (e.g. unemployment at 9.8%), dual economy means local and global sectors. - Tech must play a vital role in agriculture: This employs 50% of workforce, but contributed 10% of GDP. Yields are just 1/2 of Vietnam, with widespread soil deterioration and erosion due to intensive farming. Land reform = greater use of tech, higher yields, millions out of poverty. - Corruption and governance still barriers (e.g. "2G" scandal 2008 created a national loss of $39bn). - Infrastructure is underdeveloped.
SAUDI ARABIA Energy security risk: Low risk country - 1/5 of world's proven oil reserves - 267bn barrels. - Largest exporter of petroleum liquids in the world - maintains the world's highest oil production. - Beginning to expand into natural gas, refining, petrochemicals, electric industries after state owned Saudi Armaco reached target of 12m bpd. - Energy backbone of economy. Vast reserves on doorstep and no need to rely on stability and cooperation of foreign countries.
BRAZIL Energy security risk: Medium risk country - 8th largest energy producer, 10th largest consumer in the world. - Primary energy consumption growing at rapid pace - 1/3rd in past decade. Now 3rd largest consumer of energy in the Americas. - Government aiming to increase national oil production - focus on oil/ethanol. - New oil reserves recently discovered. Lula Oil Field (discovered Oct 2006) produces 100,000 bpd with 7.5m in reserves.Lula da Silva called it "Second independence for Brazil." - High availability of resources (Including HEP), but fast increasing demand mean medium risk.
SOUTH AFRICA Energy security risk: High risk country - Heavy industrial growth and heavy industrialisation = sharp increases in demand for power, especially from secondary resources, e.g. electricity. - Demand predicted to double by 2030. - SA 7th largest coal producer in the world. 77% of energy needs are derived from this, but 42% of future energy must come from renewables. - Govt. and Eksom (State owned power company, responsible for majority of power distribution) investing billions to take power to rural areas. - Funding for future projects, sourcing primary energy and developing infrastructure contributes to high risk.
SOUTH KOREA Energy security risk: Extreme risk country - World's 10th largest energy consumer, 2011. - Distinct lack of domestic reserves - 2nd largest importer of LNG, 3rd largest importer of coal, 5th largest importer of oil. - Factors affecting security: Geology (lack of reserves), Politics (N.Korea a barrier), Socio-economic factors (rising affluent population, industrial growth). - Country aggressively seeking exploration/production opportunities abroad.
UNITED KINGDOM Domestic energy security - Less energy consumed in UK today than in 1970, despite 6.5m population increase. Households use 12% less, industry 60%. - Rapid decline in use of coal as a source of PRIMARY ENERGY. In 1970, 57m tonnes of oil equivalent used in coal, in 2012, 3m tonnes. - Coal used in electricity generation (secondary energy) dropped marginally in the same period, from ≈42,000 to 37,000 tonnes. - In 1970, coal accounted for 2/3 of electricity, in 2012 just over 1/2 due to increase in electricity usage. - Majority of coal imported from Russia. 78% of steam coal used in power stations imported in 2009, and 62% of industry needs. Importing remains cheaper. - Oil use has also fallen. Renewables are predicted the largest source of electricity generation by 2030, providing 40% of needs. - Carbon capture tech could come by 2017. - North sea oil fields could run out in 10-35yrs. - Now costs over 130p/litre to fill a car; nPower raised gas prices by 11.1% in Oct. 2013, after threats to freeze prices by Ed Miliband.
SOLAR POWER IN THE MOJAVE NEVADA Alternative sources of energy - Several solar plants in Nevada. Largest is Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System, att 5 square miles. - Total cost: $2.2bn. Generates 400Mw of power, enough for 140,000 homes. - 2011 estimates suggests it costs $100 for 1 MW h of power from coal, $261 for solar energy. - Solar energy accounted for 0.23% of US energy in 2012, but usage has tripled under the Obama administration. - Issues: Habitat destruction, birds killed by high heat.
GAZPROM TNCs/Geopolitics - One of the world's largest companies, largest extractor of natural gas. - 2011 produced 17% of global output of natural gas. Also produces oil, gas condensate. - 51% owned by Russian government. Valuable state asset. Accounts for 10% of Russia's GDP. 2012 revenue $153bn. - Russia granted company exclusive rights to export natural gas in 2006. - Russia has strong control of EU energy: In 2007, 32.6% of EU oil imports came from Russia and 38.7% of gas imports. - Former US ambassador, John Beyrle, accused Gazprom as inefficient, politically driven and corrupt." - Shortly after Ukraine's "orange revolution," Gazprom ceased supplies to the Ukrainian market on 1st Jan 2006, lasting 3 days. Price increases only partially reflected global changes. - Countries such as Hungary, Austria, Germany saw declines in gas (40% in Hungary, up to 100% in Croatia) as most pipelines run through Ukraine. - Similar disputes in April 2006, with threats to cut supplies to Belarus. - Gazprom head, Alexei Miller, threatenes to divert sales to China and USA after UK tries to prevent Gazprom taking over Centrica, 2006.
ATHABASCA TAR SANDS CANADA Future oil reserves - 2nd largest trove of oil. 173bn barrels proven recoverable reserves, 15% of global supply. Places Canada 2nd behind Saudi Arabia. - Oil production at Athabasca oil sands increased from 600,000 bpd in 2000 to 1.3m in 2009. Currently accounts for 20% of the value of exports. - Production in 2006 = 42% of Canada's crude oil output, expected to rise to 86% in 2016. - Vital supply of oil to meet future needs. Could meet 16% of N.America's needs by 2030, improving energy security. - Process only viable when oil over $30/barrel. Costs $2 to extract 1 barrel of conventional oil, $15 for tar sands. - Energy intensive process: Takes 1 barrel of crude oil in energy to extract 3 from the tar sands. Also high water usage, requiring 2-5 barrels of water, for 1 barrel crude oil. - Greenpeace claim activity polluting Athabasca river. The air is being laced by toxins, nearby farmland destroyed. - Large areas of boreal forest cut down (470 sq. km) due to open cast mining. Lakes of waste water cover 130 sq. km. - Mining companies required to replant land.
CARBON TAXES UK Environmental legislation - UK taxes are levied upon power producers at £18.08/tonne of CO2, frozen at 2015 levels in the March '14 budget. - Similar taxes on high emission vehicles. Those cars emitting <99g/km CO2 pay no tax. A £5,000 grant is paid for those who buy electric cars. - Similar systems employed globally. In many cases, carbon taxes not employed on commercial vehicles due to effect on business.
ARCTIC OIL FIELDS Future oil reserves - Estimated 25% of the world's unexploited oil/gas reserves lie in the Arctic region, up to 90bn barrels oil, 1670trn cubic feet natural gas. - Exploration has resulted in discovery of >400 oil/gas fields. Much of the region remains unexplored. - 8 countries (incl. USA, Canada, Russia) form part of the Arctic region, could make claims. - Summer 2007: Russian explorers plant titanium flag 14,000ft beneath N.pole in demonstration of Russia's claims to the region, to the dismay of other countries. - Disputes over sovereignty continue: UN Law of the Sea Convention says countries may exploit waters 200Nm from land, leaving large areas unclaimed. - Greenpeace claim arctic drilling runs risk of oil spills and destruction of delicate ecosystems - appropriate risk mitigation not in place (see Arctic Sunrise, Sept. '13). - Arctic reserves can be extracted in more conventional, efficient manners. Will never be sustainable in long run.
MUPPANDAL WIND FARM INDIA Future sources of energy - Site of Asia's largest wind turbine, and 3500 others. - Total capacity: 1600Mw, enough for 1m homes. - Forms part of India's $2bn clean energy scheme. foreign companies given tax breaks for establishing fields of wind turbines. - Turbines cost $1.5m. Companies can buy a turbine and put their name on it instead of paying tax. Energy prices are guaranteed. - Thousands of jobs created in Muppandal, and drastically improved income for locals. - Wind energy accounts for 1.6% of India's power. Other sources needed. - 50% of homes do not have electricity. Energy usage is half that of the USA. Large increases in demand expected in the future.
RIVER SEVERN BARRAGE Future sources of energy/renewable energy - Plans have existed for a barrage since the 19th century. Tidal power is much more reliable than wind, and could account for 20% of the UK's energy needs. - Most recent proposal in 2011 for a £25bn, 11km barrage between Cardiff and Western Super Mare. Could provide 8.6Gw power, 5% of Britain's energy needs. - Rejected by 3 independent committees of MPs after concerns of economic viability, damage to the environment (mud flats, salt marshes). - Severn mudflats used by 74,000 birds every winter. A 2007 study suggested a barrage could reduce bird populations by 30 species, and cause local fish population collapse, including Atlantic salmon and Twaite Shad.
EU EMISSIONS TRADING SCHEME Environmental legislation - 20-20-20 targets set for 2020 in March '07: 20% reduction in CO2 on 1990 levels, raising renewable energy to a 20% share of power generation, 20% improvement in energy efficiency. - Works on a "cap and trade" principle. Caps progressively lowered to reduce emissions. Companies can trade emissions allowances and purchase limited international credits. - Scheme covers 45% of Europe's CO2 emissions. By 2020 they will be 21% lower than in 2005. - Member states have binding annual targets for emissions in sectors not covered by EU ETS. Targets differentiated with respect to wealth, allowing up to a 20% increase in emissions for least well off nations. - Legal framework created for safe use of carbon capture and storage tech. - Reducing emissions = reduction in energy usage, increased energy efficiency. Thus, less energy is needed, and more can had from renewable domestic sources = GREATER ENERGY SECURITY.
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