B5 - Growth and Deveolopment

blairzy123
Flashcards by , created over 5 years ago

Unit B5 flashcards from the CGP revision guide for your GCSE biology exam :D

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blairzy123
Created by blairzy123 over 5 years ago
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Question Answer
How many different bases does DNA have? 4- Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine and Thymine
Which bases tend to pair together? A - T C - G
What is a gene? a section of DNA containing the instructions for one particular protein
What are proteins made of? chains of amino acids
Describe how the order of bases in a gene determine the protein that is made Each set of triplets (three consecutive bases) code for one specific amino acid
Where in the cell are genes found? In the nucleus
Where in the cell are proteins made? organelles in the cytoplasm called ribosomes
What is messenger RNA used for? It creates a copy of the bases within the nucleus It then takes them out to the ribosomes where it makes a protein
During cell growth does the number of chromosomes double or half? Firstly, they duplicate so that there are two genetically identical parts to them Then they half or split apart as the cell splits
Mitosis or Meiosis?: It's purpose is to provide new cells for growth and repair Mitosis
Mitosis or Meiosis?: It's purpose is to create gametes (sex cells) Meiosis
Mitosis or Meiosis?: The cells produced are genetically identical Mitosis
Mitosis or Meiosis?: The cells produced contain half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell Meiosis
What's the name of the cell produced when two gametes combine? A zygote
In a human embryo, all cells are undifferentiated until what stage? the eight cell stage
How are stem cells in an embryo different to those in an adult? Embryonic stem cells are more versatile and can turn into any type of cell (whereas adult cells can't as easily)
What determines the type of cell a stem cell becomes? When specialising certain genes 'switch off' -the genes that are active determine the type of cell a stem cell specialises into
Describe how cloning could be used to make embryonic stem cells. A nucleus from a body cell is inserted into an empty egg cell Under the right conditions, the genes in the nucleus can be reactivated and produce stem cells