Interactive Multimodal Learning Environments

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A concept map of an article on interactive multimodal learning environments.
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Interactive Multimodal Learning Environments
  1. by Roxana Moreno & Richard Mayer
    1. published in 2007 in Educational Psychology Review
      1. five design principles
        1. guided activity

          Annotations:

          • -similar to the guided discovery principle in multimedia learning (de Jong, 2005) -structure and guidance, rather than open-ended exploration, is key in order to prevent extraneous processing
          1. reflection

            Annotations:

            • priming students to reflect is an example of dialoguing interactively
            1. feedback

              Annotations:

              • another example of dialoguing interactively
              1. feedback principle

                Annotations:

                • novice students learn better with explanatory rather than corrective feedback alone
              2. pacing

                Annotations:

                • -example of controlling type of interativity -benefits of pacing may reside on cognitive load reduction 
                1. pretraining

                  Annotations:

                  • form of dialoguing interactively
                  1. pretraining principle

                    Annotations:

                    • students learn better when receiving pretraining that activates or provides relevant prior knowledge
                2. directions for future IT research
                  1. games and simulations

                    Annotations:

                    • Which features of games and simulations improve learning of which kinds of knowledge for which kinds of learners?
                    1. pedagogical agents

                      Annotations:

                      • research is needed that pinpoints the features of agents that hurt learning and those that improve learning
                      1. internal vs. external properties

                        Annotations:

                        • -internal: methods used during instruction -external: voice/image charateristics
                      2. digital libraries

                        Annotations:

                        • the examination of interactivity methods that are germane to any engine or hypermedia program, such as searching and navigating
                        1. case-based learning

                          Annotations:

                          • investigating the conditions for designing effective learning from interactive multimodal environments that include cases in video and other formats
                          1. embedded authentic assessment

                            Annotations:

                            • -learners take part in a simulation of an authentic task -research is needed to determine whether this type of interactive learning environment can serve as a venue for valid, reliable, and efficient assessment of student knowledge
                          2. two views of learning
                            1. information acquisition

                              Annotations:

                              • -Behaviorist -knowledge flows from the instructor to the student -environments tend to be non-interactive
                              1. knowledge construction

                                Annotations:

                                • -Constructivist -learner is a "sense-maker" who incorporates new knowledge with existing knowledge; goal of instruction is to guide the learner through the process of making sense of the instructional materials
                                1. interactive multimodal learning environments
                                  1. cognitive-affective theory of learning with media (CATLM)

                                    Annotations:

                                    • Moreno (2005a) (a) humans process different information modalities differently (b) within each channel, only a few pieces of information can be processed at any one time (c) meaningful learner occurs through selecting, organizing, and integrating new information with existing knowledge (d) long-term memory = dynamic & evolving; holds memory for past experiences and memory for general knowledge (e) motivational factors increase/decrease cognitive engagement (f) learning is mediated by metacognitive processes (g) how much a student learns with specific media may be determined by their past knowledge/abilities
                                    1. processing
                                      1. extraneous processing

                                        Annotations:

                                        • originates from a poorly designed learning task
                                        1. representational holding

                                          Annotations:

                                          • the holding of a mental representation in working memory during meaning-making process
                                        2. essential processing

                                          Annotations:

                                          • required to mentally select new information presented in working memory
                                          1. generative processing

                                            Annotations:

                                            • making sense of new information
                                        3. present content knowledge verbally and non-verbally

                                          Annotations:

                                          • Paivio (1986)
                                          1. multimedia principle

                                            Annotations:

                                            • student understanding is improved by adding a non-verbal representation of knowledge to complement the verbal representation; the "tell me AND show me" idea
                                            1. modality principle of instructional design

                                              Annotations:

                                              • the most effective learning environments are those that combine verbal and non-verbal representations of the knowledge using mixed-modality presentations
                                            2. what happens depends on the actions of the learner
                                              1. interactivity

                                                Annotations:

                                                • between student and instructor, student and other students, etc.; as opposed to a one-way interaction between insructor and learner
                                                1. the goal of interaction = to foster learning
                                                  1. five types
                                                    1. dialoguing

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • learner can ask/answer questions and receive feedback
                                                      1. controlling

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • learner determines pace and/or order of learning episode
                                                        1. manipulating

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • learner can control aspects of presentation
                                                          1. searching

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • learner can engage in information seeking
                                                            1. navigating

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • learner can determine content of a learning episode by selecting from various available sources (e.g. a menu)
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