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Gender and Crime

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Mind Map on Gender and Crime, created by ellenthatsme123 on 06/15/2014.
ellenthatsme123
Mind Map by ellenthatsme123, updated more than 1 year ago
ellenthatsme123
Created by ellenthatsme123 about 8 years ago
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Resource summary

Gender and Crime
  1. Heindensohn - gender differences are the most significant feature of recorded crime: Official statistics show that: · 4 out of 5 convicted offenders are male (In England and Wales) · By the age of 40, 9% of females had a criminal conviction, as against 32% males · A higher proportion of female offenders are committed of property offences (except burglary) · A higher proportion of male offenders are convicted of violence or sexual offences · Males are more likely to reoffend and have longer criminal careers · Males are also more likely to commit more serious offences – for example, men are about 15 times more likely to be convicted of homicide
    1. Chivalry thesis - Pollak - men have a protective attitude towards women and hate to accuse and punish them - judicinal system is more lenient with women so their crimes are less likely to be recorded in official statistiscs. Flood-Page et al - 1 in 11 female self report offenders had been cautioned or prosecuted - 1 in 7 males were cautioned or prosecuted. Ministry of Justice - 49% of females recorded as offending received a caution , compared with 30% of males. Hoods - women 1/3 less likely to be jailed in similar cases to men.
      1. Heidensohn - courts biased against women, not in favour. Women treated more harshly than men when they deviate from gender norms, i.e. promiscuous sexual activity - double standards. Carlen - when women are jailed its less for the 'seriousness' of their crimes, and more the courts views on them as mothers, wives and daughters. Walklate - rape cases - victims has to prove her respectibility in order to have her evidence accepted.
        1. Judge Bollinger said the victim had "facilitated" the crime by getting drunk, and he worried that criminalizing intercourse with a sleeping woman might make many husbands, in the eyes of the law, rapists.
        2. Functionalist sex role theory - Parsons - gender differences in crime are rooted in gender roles in nuclear family. Men take breadwinner role, women perform expressive role. Men have smaller amount of socialising than women so socialisation for men perhaps more difficult. As a result boys seek to distance themselves from feminine behaviour, by being aggressive and anti social.
          1. Heidensohn - patriachal control - women commit less crime because of control - control at home - women are stuck with domestic role, little time for deviance. Men exercise control over women in the home, i.e. domestic violence, financial power or threats. Daughters less likely to be allowed out than boys, develop a 'bedroom culture'. Control in public - by threat or fear of male violence, also for frear of not beind defined as respectable - dress, language, make up etc can be defined as innapropriate or give a woman a reputation. Control at work - controlled by male supervisors and managers, sexual harassment widespread and keeps women in their place. Subordinate position in workplace reduces opportunities such as fraud. Heidensohn- patriachy may push some women towards crime as it means they are more likely to be poor and turn to theft or prostitution as a decent standard of living.
            1. Carlen - class and gender deal - working class women led to conform through promise of two deals: class deal - women who work will be rewarded with a decent standard of living and leisure opportunities - gender deal - patriachal ideology promises material and emotional rewards from family life by conforming to norms of domestic gender roles.
              1. Liberation thesis - Adler - women are becoming more liberated from patriachy and as result commit more crime - they begin to adopt male roles in both legitimate and illegitimate activities. As result women can also commit violent or white collar crimes.
                1. Messerschmidt: masculinity and crime - Hegemonic masculinity – masculinity defined through paid work, subordination of women and desire for women. It is the dominant form of masculinity that males wish to accomplish · Subordinated masculinity – no desire for hegemonic masculinity and may lack resources to achieve it. This includes homosexual, working-class or ethnic minority males
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