1 Deep Ecology - Aldo Leopold - not right to see the natural world simply in terms of economic worth. We
need to develop an ethics to deal with man's relationship to the land, animals and plants and revert our
priorities from people to land. Aarne Naess - every being has an equal right to live and blossom, which he
defined as ecosphy - a philosophy of ecological harmony and equilibrium. Nature does not exist to serve
humans; nature has intrinsic value.
1.1 All life has value in itself, independently of its usefulness to humans ü Richness and
diversity contribute to life’s well-being and have value in themselves ü Humans have no
right to reduce this richness and diversity except to satisfy vital needs in a responsible
way. ü The impact of humans in the world is excessive and rapidly getting worse. ü
Human lifestyles and population are key elements of this impact. ü The diversity of life,
including cultures, can flourish only with reduced human impact. ü Basic ideological,
political, economic and technological structures must therefore change. ü Those who
accept the foregoing points have an obligation to participate in implementing the
necessary changed and to do so peacefully and democratically.
1.2 Human's should reduce earths
population, abandon goals of economic
growth, conserve species diveristy, live
in small self reliant communities and
'touch the earth lightly'
2 Eco-holism - James Lovelock - Gaia hypothesis
- earth is a self regulating living system -
maintains suitable conditions for its own growth
and development - if we abuse Gaia then we risk
our own survival. The earth is a unfiied, holistic
living entity with ethical worth in which all
organisms on earth are interdependent.
3 Shallow ecology - Michael La Bossiere - some species should be
allowed to die ut as it is part of a natural selection of evolution, they
should not be protected by humans. Conservation ethics - means to an
end and is purely concerned with humanity - a person chooses to
avoid pollution or reycle because the effects are beneficial to humans.
4 Humanist theories - Peter Singer -
believed strongly in sentience - the
ability to feel pleasure and pain
which means moral worth includes
animals and if not we are guilty of
speciesism. Singer is pref.
Utilitarianist so animals should
receive equal preferences as
humans. Plants are not sentient and
are therefore not convinced by
arguments of preserving
environment for its intrinsic value.
However did say preservation of
heritage sights is acceptable as
they can be enjoyed by future
generations and so have
5 Christian approach - Dominion - Christians take an anthropocentric approach which values human interests over
any other species 'Let them have dominion over all the wild animals of the earth' Gen 1 - Value of creation - 'God
called the dry ground 'land' and the gathered waters he called 'seas' and God saw that it was good' Gen 1 -
Stewardship - 'The Lord God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to till it and keep it' Gen 2 - Man's
Sin - The Fall can sometimes be seen as reason for world's environmental issues. Care for the environment will
repair man's broken relationship with God and bring about peace, harmony and justice. Rapture - 'End of time'
second coming of Christ - uniting Christians 'all over the earth, graves will explode as the ocupants into the
Heavens' Fund. Christians believe looking after environment won't help you get to heaven, only if you truly believe