Week 2: Multimedia Learning Theories and
Instructional Design: A Synthesis of Reading
By: Jen Bosler
1 Question 1: How do Learning theories such as Cognitive Load influence instructional design
strategies and facilitation?
1.1 Knowing the learning theories influence the designer when they are creating beneficial multimedia learning
platforms. It helps the designer to realize the cognitive path that the brain will undergo when both taking in
information and making connections to prior knowledge learning through verbal and visual representations.
1.1.1 Cognitive Load Theory: Instructional messages should be designed
in ways that minimize the chances of overloading the learner's
184.108.40.206 Cognitive Constructivism: Helping students "build"
meaningful mental representations using prior knowledge.
220.127.116.11.1 IMPORTANT QUOTE: "Constructivist learning is most likely to occur when learners' needs have
corresponding visual and verbal representation in working memory at the same
18.104.22.168.1.1 This will
22.214.171.124.1.2 Source: Mayer, R.E., & Moreno, R. (2002) Aids to
Computer-based multimedia. Learning and Instruction
learning 12 (1) 107-119
1.1.2 The focus is to design multimedia messages that
promote MEANINGFUL learning!!
1.1.3 Dual Coding Theory: "Information can be stored and retrieved in both non-verbal and
verbal forms, and this dual capacity can facilitate the learning process because the
same information is accessible via multiple routes." (pg. 144)*
126.96.36.199 *Source: McTigue, E.M (2009) Does multimedia learning theory extend to middle-school
students? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34, 143-153
1.1.4 Split-Attention Principle: Students learn better when the instructional material does not require them
to split their attention between multiple sources of mutually referring information." *
188.8.131.52 *Source: Moreno, R., & Mayer, R.E. (2000). A
Learner-Centered Approach to Multimedia
Explanations: Deriving Instructional Design
Principles form Cognitive Theory. IMEJ, 2 (2).
Retrieved July 28, 2012, from
2 Question 2: Why developing objectives and assessments first is SO important?
2.1 It is important to develop objectives and assessments so that the teacher knows what is being covered in
the multimedia design. Also, so that the developers can analyze if the learning objectives are met when they
go to test and evaluate (debug) their program. Looking at the assessment in the development phase is
important because when they develop assessments, they are in essence making sure that all the important
learning objectives have been met along the way.
2.1.1 Blended Learning (hybrid learning): Blended learning supports this idea because it
incorporates various online components such as lessons, activities, resources, and
assessment. One college chemistry class incorporated these components with the
ADDIE method design model to create a more beneficial class for students. This
blend of activities helped students to retain the information better and improve their
overall GPA scores in these classes. (pg. 80-81)*
184.108.40.206 It is also important to note here the benefits to the learner when
they know the objectives before setting out on the learning
experience/platform. This was also evident in the creation of
class guides that students were provided with at the beginning of
220.127.116.11.1 The most important learning outcomes
identified were critical thinking, team
work, and logical analysis.
18.104.22.168.1.1 The course created both student
satisfaction and retention of
content...and WOW...LOOK at all the
21st century skill addressed, too!
22.214.171.124 *See source (article) cited below
2.1.2 This is where the concept of "backwards
design" comes into play...as mentioned in
3 Question 3: How the right choice of multimedia can assist the learner in reaching the learning
3.1 When answering this question it is best to reflect upon the theories described in Question 1 and to remember
that the right choice of multimedia should be consistent with how people learn. It is important to take a
"learner-centered" approach when best evaluating how multimedia can be used to facilitate learning. The
following are guidelines to keep in mind when choosing appropriate multimedia.
3.1.1 THINGS TO CONSIDER:
126.96.36.199 Learning Styles: Not all students learn best in the same way. It is best to take
student learning styles into consideration when choosing any instructional or
multimedia delivery method. How will they learn best?
188.8.131.52 Emotions and Learning: Positive emotions have a crucial effect on cognitive processes.
Positive emotions resulted in higher readiness to invest effort in the learning task. Choice of
colors, shapes, and sounds (audio) may all have an emotional effect on the learners.
184.108.40.206.1 "These emotions can be "predictors of learning" and
include: motivation, learning strategies, self-regulation,
and academic achievement.*
220.127.116.11.1.1 *Source: Um, E., Plass, J. L., Hayward, E.O., &
Homer, B.D. (2012) Emotional Design in
Multimedia Learning. Journal of Educational
Psychology, 104 (2), 485-498.
18.104.22.168.2 "Adding extraneous auditory material-in form of
music-tends to hurt students' understanding..." *
22.214.171.124.2.1 When adding
126.96.36.199.2.2 *Source: Moreno, R., & Mayer, R.E. (2000). A
Learner-Centered Approach to Multimedia Explanations:
Deriving Instructional Design Principles form Cognitive
Theory. IMEJ, 2 (2). Retrieved July 28, 2012, from
188.8.131.52 Cognitive Load: Is there enough free space in the learner's working memory so that he/she can
easily process the learning material associated with schema?
184.108.40.206.1 Can connections be made or is there "unnecessary load" on the learner? Are
messages being confused due to an overload of visual/verbal messages that are
NOT working in synchronicity?
220.127.116.11.1.1 IMPORTANT QUOTE: "In order for meaningful multimedia learning to occur, and individual has to drive and select
relevant words and images from the instructional materials, then organize them mentally into coherent verbal and
visual representations, and finally build referential connections between the visual and verbal representations." *
18.104.22.168.1.1.1 *Source: Chien, Y-T., & Chang, C-Y. (2012).
Comparison of Different Instructional
Multimedia Designs for Improving Student
Science-Process Skill Learning. J Sci Educ
Technology, 21, 106-113
22.214.171.124.1.2 DO NOT OVERLOAD! SOME ELEMENTS WILL NOT BE PROCESSED!
126.96.36.199.1.3 The processing capacities of visual and verbal working memories are severely
limited and presenting too many at once can lead to OVERLOAD!!
188.8.131.52.2 Five Aids to Computer-based Multimedia Learning:
184.108.40.206.2.1 Multimedia aids: Use narration and
animation rather than narration alone.
220.127.116.11.2.2 Contiguity aids: Present corresponding narration and
animation simultaneously rather than successively.
18.104.22.168.2.3 Coherence aids: Eliminate unneeded words and sounds
22.214.171.124.2.4 Modality aids: Present words as narration rather than as on-screen text.
126.96.36.199.2.5 Redundancy aids: Present narration and animation rather
than narration, animation, and on-screen text.
188.8.131.52.2.6 Source: Mayer, R.E., & Moreno, R. (2002) Aids to
Computer-based multimedia. Learning and Instruction
learning 12 (1) 107-119
4 How can the instructional design process, ADDIE, help?
4.1 The ADDIE design process can help enhance student success in
learning. When technologies and instructional strategies are
appropriately aligned and thoughtfully integrated into the
instructional process, they can create a blended learning environment
that can facilitate both effective teaching and learning experiences
4.1.1 A = Analyze: This analysis stage of the design focuses on assessing student learner characteristics, as
well as identifying learning objectives.
184.108.40.206 D = Design: The design stage focuses on instructional strategies that would enhance student interaction
with the course content. (ie: critical thinking and collaboration--team work)
220.127.116.11.1 D = Development: The activities/resources that will guide the learner. Successful development would
clearly identify, scaffold, organize important content for the learner, and supplement with beneficial
multimedia resources (pre-determined by the teacher)
18.104.22.168.1.1 I = Implementation: Trying out the design and putting it into action with real learners. In this stage, parameters such as
group size, frequency of contact (online of face to face), role of the learner, role of the instructor, and how students will
communicate would be put into action. It is a time to see what works...and what doesn't in some cases.
22.214.171.124.1.1.1 E = Evaluation: Time to analyze the product and results! Did the instructional design work? Were students successful in
meeting the targeted objectives they set out to learn? Did the learning activities/environment lead to a successful
learning experience for the student?
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 Shibley,I., Amoral, K.E., Shank, J.D., &Shibley,
L.R. (2011) Designing a Blended Course: Using
ADDIE to Guide Instructional Design, Journal of
College Science Teaching, 40, (6), 80-85
The Intology Website on ADDIE (Instructional Design