Week 2: Multimedia Learning Theories and Instructional Design: A Synthesis of Reading By: Jen Bosler

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Week 2: Multimedia Learning Theories and Instructional Design: A Synthesis of Reading By: Jen Bosler
1 Question 1: How do Learning theories such as Cognitive Load influence instructional design strategies and facilitation?
1.1 Knowing the learning theories influence the designer when they are creating beneficial multimedia learning platforms. It helps the designer to realize the cognitive path that the brain will undergo when both taking in information and making connections to prior knowledge learning through verbal and visual representations.
1.1.1 Cognitive Load Theory: Instructional messages should be designed in ways that minimize the chances of overloading the learner's cognitive system.
1.1.1.1 Cognitive Constructivism: Helping students "build" meaningful mental representations using prior knowledge.
1.1.1.1.1 IMPORTANT QUOTE: "Constructivist learning is most likely to occur when learners' needs have corresponding visual and verbal representation in working memory at the same time."
1.1.1.1.1.1 This will minimize cognitive load.
1.1.1.1.1.2 Source: Mayer, R.E., & Moreno, R. (2002) Aids to Computer-based multimedia. Learning and Instruction learning 12 (1) 107-119
1.1.2 The focus is to design multimedia messages that promote MEANINGFUL learning!!
1.1.3 Dual Coding Theory: "Information can be stored and retrieved in both non-verbal and verbal forms, and this dual capacity can facilitate the learning process because the same information is accessible via multiple routes." (pg. 144)*
1.1.3.1 *Source: McTigue, E.M (2009) Does multimedia learning theory extend to middle-school students? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34, 143-153
1.1.4 Split-Attention Principle: Students learn better when the instructional material does not require them to split their attention between multiple sources of mutually referring information." *
1.1.4.1 *Source: Moreno, R., & Mayer, R.E. (2000). A Learner-Centered Approach to Multimedia Explanations: Deriving Instructional Design Principles form Cognitive Theory. IMEJ, 2 (2). Retrieved July 28, 2012, from http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/2000/2/05/index.asp
2 Question 2: Why developing objectives and assessments first is SO important?
2.1 It is important to develop objectives and assessments so that the teacher knows what is being covered in the multimedia design. Also, so that the developers can analyze if the learning objectives are met when they go to test and evaluate (debug) their program. Looking at the assessment in the development phase is important because when they develop assessments, they are in essence making sure that all the important learning objectives have been met along the way.
2.1.1 Blended Learning (hybrid learning): Blended learning supports this idea because it incorporates various online components such as lessons, activities, resources, and assessment. One college chemistry class incorporated these components with the ADDIE method design model to create a more beneficial class for students. This blend of activities helped students to retain the information better and improve their overall GPA scores in these classes. (pg. 80-81)*
2.1.1.1 It is also important to note here the benefits to the learner when they know the objectives before setting out on the learning experience/platform. This was also evident in the creation of class guides that students were provided with at the beginning of the course.
2.1.1.1.1 The most important learning outcomes identified were critical thinking, team work, and logical analysis.
2.1.1.1.1.1 The course created both student satisfaction and retention of content...and WOW...LOOK at all the 21st century skill addressed, too!
2.1.1.2 *See source (article) cited below
2.1.2 This is where the concept of "backwards design" comes into play...as mentioned in previous courses.
3 Question 3: How the right choice of multimedia can assist the learner in reaching the learning objectives?
3.1 When answering this question it is best to reflect upon the theories described in Question 1 and to remember that the right choice of multimedia should be consistent with how people learn. It is important to take a "learner-centered" approach when best evaluating how multimedia can be used to facilitate learning. The following are guidelines to keep in mind when choosing appropriate multimedia.
3.1.1 THINGS TO CONSIDER:
3.1.1.1 Learning Styles: Not all students learn best in the same way. It is best to take student learning styles into consideration when choosing any instructional or multimedia delivery method. How will they learn best?
3.1.1.2 Emotions and Learning: Positive emotions have a crucial effect on cognitive processes. Positive emotions resulted in higher readiness to invest effort in the learning task. Choice of colors, shapes, and sounds (audio) may all have an emotional effect on the learners.
3.1.1.2.1 "These emotions can be "predictors of learning" and include: motivation, learning strategies, self-regulation, and academic achievement.*
3.1.1.2.1.1 *Source: Um, E., Plass, J. L., Hayward, E.O., & Homer, B.D. (2012) Emotional Design in Multimedia Learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104 (2), 485-498.
3.1.1.2.2 "Adding extraneous auditory material-in form of music-tends to hurt students' understanding..." *
3.1.1.2.2.1 When adding music....keep it mellow and calming!
3.1.1.2.2.2 *Source: Moreno, R., & Mayer, R.E. (2000). A Learner-Centered Approach to Multimedia Explanations: Deriving Instructional Design Principles form Cognitive Theory. IMEJ, 2 (2). Retrieved July 28, 2012, from http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/2000/2/05/index.asp
3.1.1.3 Cognitive Load: Is there enough free space in the learner's working memory so that he/she can easily process the learning material associated with schema?
3.1.1.3.1 Can connections be made or is there "unnecessary load" on the learner? Are messages being confused due to an overload of visual/verbal messages that are NOT working in synchronicity?
3.1.1.3.1.1 IMPORTANT QUOTE: "In order for meaningful multimedia learning to occur, and individual has to drive and select relevant words and images from the instructional materials, then organize them mentally into coherent verbal and visual representations, and finally build referential connections between the visual and verbal representations." *
3.1.1.3.1.1.1 *Source: Chien, Y-T., & Chang, C-Y. (2012). Comparison of Different Instructional Multimedia Designs for Improving Student Science-Process Skill Learning. J Sci Educ Technology, 21, 106-113
3.1.1.3.1.2 DO NOT OVERLOAD! SOME ELEMENTS WILL NOT BE PROCESSED!
3.1.1.3.1.3 The processing capacities of visual and verbal working memories are severely limited and presenting too many at once can lead to OVERLOAD!!
3.1.1.3.2 Five Aids to Computer-based Multimedia Learning:
3.1.1.3.2.1 Multimedia aids: Use narration and animation rather than narration alone.
3.1.1.3.2.2 Contiguity aids: Present corresponding narration and animation simultaneously rather than successively.
3.1.1.3.2.3 Coherence aids: Eliminate unneeded words and sounds
3.1.1.3.2.4 Modality aids: Present words as narration rather than as on-screen text.
3.1.1.3.2.5 Redundancy aids: Present narration and animation rather than narration, animation, and on-screen text.
3.1.1.3.2.6 Source: Mayer, R.E., & Moreno, R. (2002) Aids to Computer-based multimedia. Learning and Instruction learning 12 (1) 107-119
4 How can the instructional design process, ADDIE, help?
4.1 The ADDIE design process can help enhance student success in learning. When technologies and instructional strategies are appropriately aligned and thoughtfully integrated into the instructional process, they can create a blended learning environment that can facilitate both effective teaching and learning experiences for students.
4.1.1 A = Analyze: This analysis stage of the design focuses on assessing student learner characteristics, as well as identifying learning objectives.
4.1.1.1 D = Design: The design stage focuses on instructional strategies that would enhance student interaction with the course content. (ie: critical thinking and collaboration--team work)
4.1.1.1.1 D = Development: The activities/resources that will guide the learner. Successful development would clearly identify, scaffold, organize important content for the learner, and supplement with beneficial multimedia resources (pre-determined by the teacher)
4.1.1.1.1.1 I = Implementation: Trying out the design and putting it into action with real learners. In this stage, parameters such as group size, frequency of contact (online of face to face), role of the learner, role of the instructor, and how students will communicate would be put into action. It is a time to see what works...and what doesn't in some cases.
4.1.1.1.1.1.1 E = Evaluation: Time to analyze the product and results! Did the instructional design work? Were students successful in meeting the targeted objectives they set out to learn? Did the learning activities/environment lead to a successful learning experience for the student?
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Shibley,I., Amoral, K.E., Shank, J.D., &Shibley, L.R. (2011) Designing a Blended Course: Using ADDIE to Guide Instructional Design, Journal of College Science Teaching, 40, (6), 80-85 The Intology Website on ADDIE (Instructional Design Process)

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