Rise of Hitler

wongliqin
Mind Map by wongliqin, updated more than 1 year ago
wongliqin
Created by wongliqin over 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Rise of Hitler, created by wongliqin on 07/18/2014.

Resource summary

Rise of Hitler
1 Weaknesses of Weimar Government (POLITICAL)
1.1 Structural Weaknesses
1.1.1 System of Proportional Representation
1.1.1.1 Political parties gained seats in parliament based on the no. of votes won. Many political parties, but no single party could gain authority.
1.1.1.1.1
1.1.2 Instability of Coalition Governments
1.1.2.1 Many parties form coalition governments --> NO compromise on certain issues. However, coalition governments did not last long. Between 1919-1933, there were 20 diff. govts.
1.1.2.1.1 How did structural weaknesses of the W.G. enabled the rise of Hitler? :( Short lifespans was disruptive :( German public left with impression that new democratic govt. :) Hitler offered vision of strong unified govt, Germans more willing to support Nazi Party
1.2 Lack of Support from People
1.2.1 Civil service, military, judiciary & businessmen did not support W.G. They preferred strong governments (under Kaiser & monarchy)
1.2.1.1 :( Lack of Support = Undermine authority of W.G. & Weak :) Easy for Nazi Party to gain support from people against W.G.
1.3 Opposition from Left & Right (Inability to put down revolts)
1.3.1 Right-wing
1.3.1.1 Extremely nationalist and many from the army. They felt betrayed by Weimar politicians who accept the ToV and humiliation of Germany, when Germany had not been defeated/could have fought on. In 1920, during the Kapp Putsch, extremists tried to topple the W.G.
1.3.1.1.1
1.3.2 Left-wing
1.3.2.1 Wanted to establish communist government instead. Influenced by Russian Bolsheviks. Between 1918-9, there were several revolts by communist groups such as Spartacists.
1.3.2.1.1 :( Revolts = Showed weaknesses of W.G & inability to provide strong unifying leadership for Germans. :) Hitler & Nazis able to gain support by using examples to show ineffectiveness of W.G., and offered a strong alternative in terms of leadership, by using German nationalism as a unifying factor
2 Hitler's Leadership Abilities
2.1 Charisma & Oratorical Skills
2.1.1 1) Brilliant speaker who had a strong belief in himself. and was able to reach out to the German people during troubled times; he knew their concerns 2) Staged and aimed to stir people in believing that the Nazi Party could be counted on. 3) Made beer hall speeches and began to rant and rave when audience got drunk, which sway their opinions to support Nazi's ideologues 4) He used the 'November criminals', adn the Jews as scapegoats for Germany's ills.
2.1.1.1 Hitler's ability to inspire and convince people to support him and vote for the Nazi party to power led to Hitler's rise to power.
2.2 Political Strategies
2.2.1 Making Deals with Politicians
2.2.1.1 He was a good political strategist who made use of right opportunities to gradually increase his power. Skilful at making deals to advance his own position, in the July 1932 elections, the Nazis won 37.3% and became the party with the most seats in the Reichstag.This made the Nazis powerful, as no coalition government could govern without Nazi support. He convinced Hindenburg and von Papen to appoint him the Chancellor, and they thought that they could control Hitler and continue in policy-making.
2.2.1.1.1 However, with Hitler's new powers, he used emergency powers to remove his political opponents and this allowed him to further extend his powers.
2.2.2 Exploited Fears of Communism
2.2.2.1 Fearful of what happened under communism in USSR, many farmers and big industrialists and businessmen feared Communism. They saw that a National Socialist Germany was likely to be strong and solve Germany economic problems.
2.2.2.1.1 Hitler provided a likely solution to prevent a communist takeover in Germany. With strong financial backing, Hitler was able to finance his party and strengthen them to compete with other political parties, which allowed the Nazi Party to gain mass support and votes.
2.2.3 Reorganised Nazi Party
2.2.3.1 1) Increasing party membership through the creation of Hitler Youth and other youth organisations 2) Established the SA and SS which broke up communist party meetings and gained the support of industrialists. 3) Using Nazi propaganda, Hitler portrayed Nazis as a strong party united behind one leader and deliberately appealed to people's emotions rather than intellect.
2.2.3.1.1 By restructuring the Nazi Party, Hitler not only extended and secured great support for the NaziParty to more German people, he managed to climb to power by having opportuniistic political strategies.
3 Hyperinflation & Great Depression (ECONOMIC)
3.1 In 1923, France and Belgium invaded the Ruhr when Germany failed to make payment. Germans adopted a policy of non-cooperation, and the govt responded by printing more money. The value decreased and prices spiralled out of control. Hyperinflation resulted and the poor were hard-hit, but the middle and upper class were bitter. It was resolved by Chancellor Stresemann when he replaced currency with the new Rentenmark. He also got loans from the US to rebuild industries. However, when the Great Depression came, it also Germany became badly affected as the US withdrew its loans.
3.1.1 Spelt the end of the W.F because they were unable to solve economic problems. Caused widespread unhappiness among Germans who were looking for alternative party to replace the W.G. Hitler capitalise on these sentiments and in his speeches assured people that employment rates will improve and economy will recover.
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