188.8.131.52 Political parties gained seats in
parliament based on the no. of
votes won. Many political
parties, but no single party
could gain authority.
1.1.2 Instability of Coalition Governments
184.108.40.206 Many parties form coalition
governments --> NO
compromise on certain issues.
However, coalition governments
did not last long. Between
1919-1933, there were 20 diff.
220.127.116.11.1 How did structural weaknesses of the
W.G. enabled the rise of Hitler? :( Short
lifespans was disruptive :( German public
left with impression that new democratic
govt. :) Hitler offered vision of strong
unified govt, Germans more willing to
support Nazi Party
1.2 Lack of Support from People
1.2.1 Civil service, military, judiciary &
businessmen did not support W.G. They
preferred strong governments (under Kaiser &
18.104.22.168 :( Lack of Support =
Undermine authority of
W.G. & Weak :) Easy for
Nazi Party to gain support
from people against W.G.
1.3 Opposition from
Left & Right
(Inability to put
22.214.171.124 Extremely nationalist and many from the army. They felt
betrayed by Weimar politicians who accept the ToV and
humiliation of Germany, when Germany had not been
defeated/could have fought on. In 1920, during the Kapp
Putsch, extremists tried to topple the W.G.
126.96.36.199 Wanted to establish communist
government instead. Influenced by
Russian Bolsheviks. Between 1918-9,
there were several revolts by communist
groups such as Spartacists.
188.8.131.52.1 :( Revolts = Showed weaknesses of W.G &
inability to provide strong unifying leadership
for Germans. :) Hitler & Nazis able to gain
support by using examples to show
ineffectiveness of W.G., and offered a strong
alternative in terms of leadership, by using
German nationalism as a unifying factor
2 Hitler's Leadership
2.1 Charisma & Oratorical Skills
2.1.1 1) Brilliant speaker who had a strong belief in himself. and was able to reach out
to the German people during troubled times; he knew their concerns 2) Staged
and aimed to stir people in believing that the Nazi Party could be counted on. 3)
Made beer hall speeches and began to rant and rave when audience got drunk,
which sway their opinions to support Nazi's ideologues 4) He used the 'November
criminals', adn the Jews as scapegoats for Germany's ills.
184.108.40.206 Hitler's ability to inspire and
convince people to support him
and vote for the Nazi party to
power led to Hitler's rise to power.
2.2 Political Strategies
2.2.1 Making Deals with Politicians
220.127.116.11 He was a good political strategist who made
use of right opportunities to gradually increase
his power. Skilful at making deals to advance
his own position, in the July 1932 elections,
the Nazis won 37.3% and became the party
with the most seats in the Reichstag.This
made the Nazis powerful, as no coalition
government could govern without Nazi support.
He convinced Hindenburg and von Papen to
appoint him the Chancellor, and they thought
that they could control Hitler and continue in
18.104.22.168.1 However, with Hitler's new
powers, he used emergency
powers to remove his
political opponents and this
allowed him to further extend
2.2.2 Exploited Fears of Communism
22.214.171.124 Fearful of what happened under
communism in USSR, many farmers and big
industrialists and businessmen feared
Communism. They saw that a National
Socialist Germany was likely to be strong
and solve Germany economic problems.
126.96.36.199.1 Hitler provided a likely solution
to prevent a communist
takeover in Germany. With
strong financial backing, Hitler
was able to finance his party
and strengthen them to compete
with other political parties,
which allowed the Nazi Party to
gain mass support and votes.
2.2.3 Reorganised Nazi Party
188.8.131.52 1) Increasing party membership through the
creation of Hitler Youth and other youth
organisations 2) Established the SA and SS
which broke up communist party meetings and
gained the support of industrialists. 3) Using
Nazi propaganda, Hitler portrayed Nazis as a
strong party united behind one leader and
deliberately appealed to people's emotions
rather than intellect.
184.108.40.206.1 By restructuring the Nazi Party, Hitler not only
extended and secured great support for the
NaziParty to more German people, he managed to
climb to power by having opportuniistic political
3 Hyperinflation & Great Depression
3.1 In 1923, France and Belgium invaded the Ruhr when Germany failed to make payment.
Germans adopted a policy of non-cooperation, and the govt responded by printing more
money. The value decreased and prices spiralled out of control. Hyperinflation resulted
and the poor were hard-hit, but the middle and upper class were bitter. It was resolved
by Chancellor Stresemann when he replaced currency with the new Rentenmark. He
also got loans from the US to rebuild industries. However, when the Great Depression
came, it also Germany became badly affected as the US withdrew its loans.
3.1.1 Spelt the end of the W.F because they were unable to solve economic problems.
Caused widespread unhappiness among Germans who were looking for
alternative party to replace the W.G. Hitler capitalise on these sentiments and in
his speeches assured people that employment rates will improve and economy