C1.3 Metals And Their Uses

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GCSE Chemistry (C1) Mind Map on C1.3 Metals And Their Uses, created by killthemoment on 07/20/2014.

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C1.3 Metals And Their Uses
1 C1.3.1 Extracting Metals
1.1 Ores are naturally occurring rocks that provide a starting point for the manufacture of metals.
1.1.1 A metal ore is a rock containing a metal, or a metal compound, in high enough concentration to make it economic to extract the metal. Ores are mined and may need to be concentrated before the metal is extracted and purified. The economics of extraction may change over time; as a metal becomes rarer, an ore may be used when it was previously considered too expensive to mine. Unreactive metals are found as the native metal but most metals are found as compounds; requiring chemical reactions to extract the metal. Metals less reactive than carbon can be extracted from their oxides by reduction with carbon. Metals more reactive than carbon are extracted by electrolysis, an expensive process due to the many stages and the energy required. Copper can be extracted from copper-rich ores by smelting, then purified by electrolysis. The supply of copper-rich ores is limited. There are ways to limit the environmental impact of traditional mining. Phytomining is the process of burning plants which have absorbed metal compounds to produce ash. Bioleaching uses bacteria to produce leachate solutions that contain metal compounds. Aluminium is extensively recycled because less energy is needed than to extract aluminium from its ore; preserving limited resources and energy, causing less damage to the environment.
2 C1.3.2 Alloys
2.1 Iron from the blast furnace contains about 96% iron; the impurities make it brittle.
2.1.1 Most iron is converted into steels; alloys which are mixtures of iron and carbon. Alloys can be designed for specific uses. Low-carbon steels are easily shaped, high-carbon steels are hard, and stainless steels are resistant to corrosion. Most metals in everyday use are alloys as pure copper, gold, iron and aluminium are too soft for many uses.
3 C1.3.3 Properties And Uses Of Metals
3.1 Transition metals, like other metals, are good conductors and can be bent or hammered into shape. They are useful as structural materials.
3.1.1 Copper has properties making it useful for electrical wiring and plumbing: good conductor of electricity and heat; can be bent but is hard enough to be used to make pipes or tanks and does not react with water. Low density and resistance to corrosion make aluminium and titanium useful metals.
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