Gender Bias In Psychology

Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

A-Levels PY4 (Controversies) Mind Map on Gender Bias In Psychology, created by Hayd23 on 05/28/2013.

Created by Hayd23 over 6 years ago
Aetiologies of Depression
Treatment and Punishment of Crime
PY4 Controversy Definitions
GCSE PHYSICS: Energy Transfer
4 Lesson Planning Tips for Teachers
Micheal Heffernan
Issues and Debates 16-marker Plans (AQA A Level Psychology)
Grace Fawcitt
Approaches to Profiling
Decision Making of Juries
Cultural Bias AO1 and AO3
Hannah Pear
Theories of Crime
Gender Bias In Psychology
1 Alpha bias
1.1 assume there are real differences between men and women
1.2 example
1.2.1 Freud's theory of psychosexual development is alpha-biased because he viewed femininity as failed masculinity Freud (1925) - "we must not allow ourselves to ... regard the two sexes as completely equal in position and worth" Freud believed that women's 'deficiency' is caused by the absence of a penis women are seen as being inferior to men because they are jealous of mens penises (penis envy) they cannot undergo the same Oedipus conflict as boys do (involves castration anxiety) because the superego develops from the Oedipus conflict, women must therefore be morally inferior
1.2.2 Josselson (1988) - "Classical psychoanalytical theory is grounded in the genital inferiority of women and deduce their moral inferiority as well"
2 Beta bias
2.1 tend to ignore or minimise differences between men and women
2.2 example
2.2.1 Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning had an androcentric bias for 2 reasons dilemmas used to asses moral reasoning were based on a male perspective the developmental scale was based on research with males the theory was then applied to both men and women assuming that it had universal relevance unsurprisingly, Kohlberg found females did NOT reason at the same higher level that males did devalues female perspective
2.3 Androcentric bias
2.3.1 theories and studies tend to be written/conducted by men
3 Dealing with gender bias
3.1 Feminist psychology
3.1.1 takes the view that a necessity to any social change with respect to gender roles must be a revision of our 'facts' about gender facts perpetuate our beliefs about women
3.1.2 aims to redress the imbalances in psychology one way to redress the balance use evidence that women may be inferior to provide women with greater support Eagly (1978) acknowledged that women may be less effective leaders than men but this knowledge should be used to develop suitable training programmes and therefore create a future with more women leaders
3.2 Reverse alpha bias
3.2.1 develop theories which show the differences between men and women but that emphasise the value of women Gilligan's view - women are concerned with interpersonal relations whereas men are more concerned with justice and reason
3.3 Avoiding a beta bias
3.3.1 beta bias has consequences for women however, equal treatment under the law has allowed women greater access to educational and occupational opportunities
3.3.2 Hare-Mustin and Maracek - arguing for equality between men and women draws attention away from women's special needs and from differences in power between men and women in a society where one group holds most of the power, neutral actions end up benefiting the group with the power EG. equal parental leave ignores the biological demands of pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding, and the special needs of women, disadvantaging women

Media attachments