Psychology GCSE Edexcel Topic C - Do TV and violent video games affect behaviour? | Flashcards

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GCSE Psychology GCSE Flashcards on Psychology GCSE Edexcel Topic C - Do TV and violent video games affect behaviour? | Flashcards, created by Azidic Arcturus on 12/30/2015.

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Topic C - Do TV and violent video games affect behaviour? Flip card for table of contents. Aggression Biological reasons for aggression (Brain and hormones) Social reasons for aggression (Bandura) 4 case studies: Anderson and Dill Ramirez et al. Charlton et al. Williams et al. The role of an educational psychologist (Not done) Censorship
Aggression The intent to cause physical, verbal, or psychological harm to a person or group or the damaging of property.
Hostile aggression Aggression that is a response to someone or something that angers them.
Instrumental aggression Aggression that is intended in order to claim a reward or prestige e.g. fighting in a boxing tournament for a trophy.
Nature How you're born e.g. genetic traits, eye colour, male or female.
Nurture How you're brought up e.g. being taught how to play football or barbie dolls at a young age based on your gender.
Limbic system The part of the brain that is responsible for the creation and recognition of emotions such as fear and aggression. It is shaped like a wishbone.
Amygdala A pea-shaped part of the limbic system that is specifically responsible for emotion recognition such as providing a happy response when someone smiles at you.
Case study: King (1961) Researchers have electrically stimulated a woman's amygdala. When the electric current was turned on, the woman became verbally aggressive, whereas when it was turned off, she became calm. This case study shows that the electrical stimulation of the amygdala is a cause of aggression.
Case study: Charles Whitman Charles Whitman was a university student that killed lots of people on top of an observation tower. Charles was shot dead afterwards by the police. Before Charles went on to commit the massacre, after killing his wife and mother, he has written a note, saying that he wants his brain to be examined. Doctors have then noticed that when they opened Charles' head, he has a massive brain tumour, pressing on his amygdala. The fact that a massive brain tumour was pressing on Charles' amygdala shows that there is a natural cause for aggression that can be potentially uncontrollable.
Hormone Sends chemical signals in the body through the bloodstream.
Testosterone A hormone known to be responsible for levels of aggression.
Social Learning Theory A theory that created the basis as to how people learned and copied behaviours. There are 4 steps: Paying ATTENTION to what's being seen Remembering what's happened through RETENTION REPRODUCING what's been seen with a MOTIVATION why. A(ttention, Retention, Reproduction, Motivation; ARRM
Role models People that have a form of significance in your life that you might want to copy because of factors such as: same family, same sex, same gender, same race, same aspirations etc.
Modelling The process of copying a role model e.g. copying your mother cleaning the floor or copying your father cleaning the car.
Identification The process of becoming like the role model e.g. having the same appearance or/and personality.
Vicarious reinforcement Copying things through someone else's actions. For example, you copy someone cleaning up their room because they get a cookie afterwards, in which the cookie is the incentive and the reward for cleaning up your room.
Key Case Studies ================== Important series of case studies that you need to know for the exam. These series of flash cards will go in order, talking about the aim, procedure, results, conclusion, evaluation, and key terms from the study. Flip this flash card for the list of case studies you need to know and bonus case studies (that you don't need to know, but can be used as points of reference.) Anderson and Dill (2000) Ramirez et al. Charlton et al. Williams et al. ==== BONUS CASE STUDIES ==== King (1961) Charles Whitman
Anderson and Dill: Aim To see if violent video games and non-violent video games affected levels of aggression and why.
Anderson and Dill: Procedure Participants: 210 participants, split into two groups. Before being sorted into two groups, they were rated based on how they would rate themselves on aggression. Group 1 - The 'violent video game' group, playing the game 'Wolfenstein 3D'. Group 2 - The 'non-violent video game' group, playing the game 'Myst'. Both groups would then take competitive reaction time tests, in which participants can adjust how loud and how long the noise they inflict to the opponent. (The dependent variable)
Anderson and Dill: Results The group who played the violent video game dealt more severe punishments in the competitive reaction time tests, whereas the group who played the non-violent video game dealt less severe punishments. Interestingly, girls dealt higher levels of punishment in the competitive reaction time tests than boys.
Anderson and Dill: Conclusion Forms of media e.g. video games that focus on violence are more likely to create ideas of aggression. This can lead to permanent changes in the brain, due to the easy accessibility of violent forms of media that are released every day.
Anderson and Dill: Evaluation Strengths + Anderson and Dill have evenly distributed their sample based on how participants have rated themselves in the questionnaires. This ensured that aggression levels were less likely to distort the results. + Anderson and Dill have ensured that demand characteristics are less likely to affect the results, as the study has been conducted in independent measures, meaning that both conditions of the study are performed with different groups of people. + The sample is huge, so there is a lot of statistical evidence (quantitative data) that can be represented in graphs. Weaknesses - Anderson and Dill have broken several ethical guidelines that they should've followed. These ethical guidelines are: - Usage of deception and informed consent Anderson and Dill have told participants that the study was a test for their motor skills, when in reality, they were testing for levels of aggression. This was used, however, to prevent demand characteristics from affecting the study. - The study was performed in a controlled environment = demand characteristics
Ramirez et al: Aim To see if different cultures have different levels of aggression and why.
Ramirez et al: Procedure Participants: 400 self-selected participants; 2 groups; 200 Spanish, and 200 Japanese. The groups were tested based the scores on a questionnaire. The participants were tested in 4 sections: Physical Aggression (PA), Verbal Aggression (VA), Anger (A), Hostility (H). The higher the score in these sections, the higher the aggression levels. Some questions on the questionnaire are reverse-scored. The questionnaire data was quantitative.
Ramirez et al: Results Men had higher scores in the tests overall than girls. The Spanish group had higher verbal aggression levels, whereas the Japanese had higher physical aggression levels.
Ramirez et al: Conclusion Different cultures have different ways of being aggressive, with men often using more aggression than girls.
Ramirez et al: Evaluation Strengths + A very good sample has been used. 200 Spanish and 200 Japanese students were put in matched measures, making the study more valid and representative of both cultures. + Qualitative (numbered) data from the questionnaires can be represented in graphs. + The sample was self-selected, which means that all students were able to participate with high attention levels as they volunteered for the study. Weaknesses + The sample only represents young students. It doesn't represent other age groups such as children nor the elderly, making the sample less representative of both Japanese and Spanish cultures. + Self-selected samples are often seen as 'helpful'. This makes the sample limited to people that are only helpful, so it doesn't include people that are e.g. not helpful.
Charlton et al: Aim To see if the introduction of TV affects aggression levels of children in St. Helena and why.
Charlton et al: Procedure Type of experiment: Natural experiment; the independent variable, the introduction of television in St. Helena naturally occurs. Sample: No specific number of children recorded. Dependent variable: The behaviour of children on the island. Procedure: (1) Questionnaires about the children's aggression; (2) The types of television programmes the children watched and for how long (content analysis) (3) Aggression levels from students seen in the school playground overtly. (4) Aggression levels from student seen in school from surveillance cameras.
Charlton et al: Results Very little change in children's aggression levels changed in St. Helena before and after the introduction of television. This may be due to the fact that St. Helena has a close knit community with high amounts of surveillance, as everyone knows each other.
Charlton et al: Conclusion Aggression levels are not affected when there are high levels of control, such as surveillance of what TV shows the children watch.
Charlton et al: Evaluation Strengths + This study was a natural experiment, meaning that the independent variable of the introduction of TV being introduced to St. Helena occurred naturally. This gives the study very high amounts of realism and validity. + The study was longitudinal. Charlton et al made the experiment last a very long time so that they were able to record how long the study affected children's aggression levels in St. Helena. Weaknesses - The study only studied about children. It did not study about other age groups such as parents. - Since the community was close-knit, questionnaire answers may have not been answered honestly as a way to keep the St Helena's image clean or to protect their children.
Key term: Natural experiment An experiment where the independent variable is naturally occurring.
Williams et al: Aim To see whether the introduction of TV affected children's behaviour in British Columbia and why.
Williams et al: Procedure Type of experiment: Natural experiment Participants: Children Independent variable: Naturally occuring; TV before and after its introduction in Notel. Dependent variable: Recorded in 3 ways (1) Questionnaires on the leisure activities the community were involved in (2) Observations of aggressive behaviour of children at school (3) Tests of IQ (intelligence), creativity, and reading ability of children Measures: Content analysis; The number of physical acts of aggression (hitting) and verbal aggression (teasing) Results from Notel are compared to the towns Unitel (one TV channel) and Multitel (multiple TV channels).
Williams et al: Results Results: Observations - Children were twice as aggressive after TV was introducted in Notel. Gender difference gaps widened because of the gender role allocations on TV. e.g. boys watch action shows where as girls watch non violent cartoons. Children became less creative. IQ scores dropped slightly after the introduction of TV in Notel.
Williams et al: Conclusion Notel had the most significant increase in aggression; Towns such as Unitel and Multitel with TV already had a lower increase in aggression. Time was less spent on leisure activities, lowered creativity, and slightly lowered IQ (intelligence quota) levels.
Williams et al: Evaluation Strengths + This experiment is a natural experiment, where the independent variable (the introduction of TV) naturally occurs. This makes the study have high amounts of realism and validity. + There was a good usage of control in the experiment. For example, researchers have waited several days in the observations so that the children are used to their surroundings. Weaknesses + Very hard to repeat it for reliability because the study is done over a long period of time, and the TV introduction naturally occurred. - Observation results may be biased because the researchers expected to see higher levels of aggression; they may have reported higher levels of aggression because of this. - Researchers did not control how long children watched TV.
Moral censorship The prevention of the distribution of material for safety, ethical, and lawful reasons.
Watershed The prevention of showing adult programmes before 9pm in exchange for more age-friendly programmes.
Authoritarian The forcing of following a government's norms and values. Programmes are usually limited to do this e.g. propaganda and violence cartoons.
Paternalistic The government that creates rules for the good of all people. They censor programmes etc. for moral, ethical, and lawful reasons.
Key term: Content analysis The research method used to find how frequent something is seen from a source of media e.g. how many times someone has punched one another in a book, video etc.
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