Japanese Art History

Gurjit Dhadda
Mind Map by Gurjit Dhadda, updated more than 1 year ago
Gurjit Dhadda
Created by Gurjit Dhadda almost 3 years ago
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https://www.japan-guide.com/g9/4104_02.jpg https://www.japan-guide.com/g9/3501_01.jpg http://www.thebuddhagarden.com/mm5/graphics/00000001/white-buddha-statue.jpg https://www.japan-guide.com/g2/3100_01.jpg https://i.pinimg.com/736x/c2/d3/48/c2d348682e90b6258852ca1d9b18b759--antique-items-tabby-cats.jpg http://asianartnewspaper.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/06-Hachiman.jpg https://i.pinimg.com/originals/2b/6b/31/2b6b3199ba09360181faaff0e89383a2.jpg https://i.pinimg.com/736x/e4/2d/6e/e42d6

Resource summary

Japanese Art History
1 Architecture
1.1 Ise Grand Shrine
1.2 Horyuji Temple
1.2.1 Protector of the state
1.2.2 guardian type symbol
1.2.3 protect temple from evil
1.2.4 oriental
1.3 Gold Pavilion (Kinkakuji)

Annotations:

  • http://img.timeinc.net/time/photoessays/2011/travel_kyoto/01_kinkakuji.jpg
1.3.1 zen, samurai, shin den
1.3.2 Kyoto
1.3.3 golden phoenix
1.3.4 gallery of buddha on the third floor
1.4 Ginkakuji Temple
1.5 Todaiji Temple, Nara City

Annotations:

  • https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/Tōdai-ji_Kon-dō.jpg/1200px-Tōdai-ji_Kon-dō.jpg
1.5.1 Home of the Great Buddha
1.5.2 50,000 carpenters
1.5.3 350,000 metal smiths
1.6 Byodoin Temple, Uji City
1.7 Ryoanji, Dry Garden
1.8 Himeji Castle
1.8.1 "White Heroin Castle"
1.8.2 83 Buildings
1.8.3 Never Destroyed
1.8.4 Military Building
1.8.5 symbol of its occupant’s power and wealth
1.8.6 over 400 years old and was completed in 1609
1.8.7 in the momoyami era, outside was embellished with gold
1.9 Castles
1.9.1 Hirosaki Castle
1.9.2 Matsumoto Castle

Annotations:

  • https://www.japan-guide.com/g8/6051_01.jpg
1.9.2.1 feudal era
1.9.2.2 a wooden interior
1.9.2.3 defend against enemy attack
1.9.3 Kummamoto Castle
1.9.4 Osaka Castle
1.9.5 Nagoya Castle
1.9.6 Detailed and intricate roofs, 3-5 storeys high
1.9.7 Deference Structures:
1.9.7.1 Water, moats and Nawabar etc.
1.9.8 Designed around topographical features
1.9.9 Fushimi Castle
1.9.10 Gold leaf backgrounds
1.9.11 brilliantly coloured paintings
1.9.12 built during the civil war as means of fortification/protection.
1.9.13 only TWELVE major castle keeps survive from the feudal era
1.10 Temples
1.10.1 symmetrical
1.10.2 minimalist design
1.10.3 usually near water
1.10.4 some entirely made out of wood
1.10.5 A space of relaxation and separation from reality.
1.11 Domestic Architecture
1.11.1 wood
1.11.2 Plaster
1.11.2.1 smooth over
1.11.3 Woven Straw
1.11.3.1 mats
1.11.4 Rice Paper
1.11.4.1 Silding Screen
1.11.5 natural elements
2 Early Cultures
2.1 Shinto
2.1.1 In relation to buddhism
2.1.1.1 Primitive Shintoism never attempted to portray Gods
2.1.1.2 First Shinto Shrine, Shindan Shrine, was made from Buddhist influence
2.1.1.3 acquisition of knowledge rather than religion
2.1.2 a way of life
2.1.3 shrines
2.1.3.1 relation to nature
2.1.3.1.1 mountains
2.1.3.1.2 agriculture
2.1.3.1.3 fox status
2.1.4 "old shinto"
2.1.4.1 shinto before buddhism
2.1.5 birth
2.1.6 wedding
2.2 Buddhism
2.2.1 Zen Buddhism
2.2.1.1 - “Zen meditation, is a way of vigilance and self-discovery which is practiced while sitting on a meditation cushion. It is the experience of living from moment to moment, in the here and now. It is through the practice of Zazen that Gautama got enlightened and became the Buddha.” From: http://www.zen-buddhism.net/

Annotations:

  • http://www.zen-buddhism.net/images/zen-beliefs-and-dogmas.jpg
2.2.1.2 - “Zen is not a moral teaching, and as it is without dogma, it does not require one to believe in anything. A true spiritual path does not tell people what to believe in; rather it shows them how to think; or, in the case of Zen - what not to think.” From: http://www.zen-buddhism.net/
2.2.2 be mindful of your thoughts
2.2.3 - Living in the moment, peaceful, very accepting
2.2.4 “Zen Buddhism is not a theory, an idea, or a piece of knowledge. It is not a belief, dogma, or religion; but rather, it is a practical experience.”

Annotations:

  • .” http://www.zen-buddhism.net/     
2.2.5 - Very interpersonal, very paradoxical, intense discipline that should result in spontaneity and living your life
2.2.6 - All beings are Buddha, but you must discover truth within yourself
2.2.7 - Finding happiness and harmony
2.2.8 - There is no set way of “Buddhism”, it is your own spiritual journey
2.2.9 Lots of meditation, chanting, to focus the mind and body, being aware of mind and body
2.2.10 - Strong sense about the relationships with other human beings, being humble and respectful
3 Sculpture
3.1 - Nara School created founded by Raijo – school for master sculptors
3.2 - Communal building kind of like arts funding went towards sculptures
3.3 Mid 12th century – 14th century was labeled as the sliver age of art
3.4 Different Buddha Poses
3.4.1 Protection Buddha / Overcoming Fear
3.4.2 Calling The Earth To Witness / Earth Touching Buddha
3.4.3 Meditation Buddha / Serenity Buddha / Calming Buddha
3.4.4 The Nirvana Buddha / Reclining Buddha
3.4.5 Medicine Buddha
3.4.6 Teaching Buddha / DharmaChakra Buddha
3.4.7 Happy Buddha / Ho Tai / Prosperity Buddha
3.5 Buddha Sculpture
3.5.1 bronze
3.5.2 strong Korean influence
3.5.3 Miroku Bosatsu
3.5.4 The Great Buddha in Kamakura
3.5.4.1 unusual because it sits in open air, national treasure by the Japanese government - size falls short to the Great Buddha of Todai-ji Temple in Nara - construction occurred in 1252 and believed that priest Joko gathered donations from the people - records show that it was damaged and destroyed in 2 typhoons and 1 earthquake
3.5.5 Nehanzo of Nanzoin Temple 1995 - may be the biggest bronze Statue in the World - three different types of buddha poses: sitting, standing, and reclining. - this one is reclining: rare type, meaning nearing the end of death (nirvana) - built to house the ashes of a Buddha
3.6 Yosegi-Zukuri (joined wood-block construction)
3.7 Gorinto 19th Century - Buddhist stone made with 5-tiered stupas that represent the sky, wind, water, fire, and ground
3.8 Protection Figures
3.8.1 Represent good fortune and luck
3.8.2 Success in Business
3.8.3 Gold = wealth, White= Happiness, Black = is to ward off evil or illness
3.8.4 Maneki Neko Cats (The beckoning cat) – The Edo Period (1600-1850)
3.9 Sculptures of the period (1185 – 1333) Considered to be a highpoint in Japanese art - Sculptures displayed high realism and innovation - Artists began to sign their work. More specific tracing. Powerful warrior clans. This is because it was a time of political disruption - Elite warriors became a new source of art patrons. For religious arts) - Chinese influences
4 Painting
4.1 History
4.1.1 Yamato-e: classical Japanese painting style
4.1.2 Sumi-e - The ink style is reminiscent of ancient Chinese style. - It’s more abstract and naturalistic than that of the Chinese style
4.2 Tale of Genji Scoll
4.2.1 The Tale of Genji, thought by many to be the first novel in the history of world literature, was written by a woman, Murasaki Shikibu, in the eleventh century. Lady Murasaki lived during the Heian Period (794-1185), an era remarkable for the poetry, diaries, and fiction produced by court ladies.(afe.easia.columbia.edu)
4.3 Katsushika Hokusai, Famous Paintings
4.3.1 Katsushika Hokusai - The Great Wave off Kanagawa
4.3.1.1 o Spirituality
4.3.1.2 o Respect for nature
4.3.1.3 o Waves in foreground with Mount Fuji visible through the waves
4.3.1.4 no cropping of image
4.3.2 Katsushika Hokusai - The Dream of the Fisherman's Wife
4.3.2.1 - reminded of the story of Princess Tamatori
4.3.2.2 o Ukiyo-e style, beautiful women/folktale
4.3.2.3 o Fantasy, but within nature
4.3.2.4 o White background with text
4.3.2.5 o Warm colours of tentacles as focal point
4.3.3 Tenmyouya Hisashi - Japanese Spirit No. 14
4.4 Japanese Ghost Paintings
4.4.1 Characteristics
4.4.1.1 Long Black Hair
4.4.1.2 White Kimono
4.4.1.3 Long Arms
4.4.1.4 Flowing Sleeves
4.4.1.5 No body displayed after the waist
4.4.2 • Jikiniki – “Human eating ghosts”; spirits of greedy, selfish or impious people. Were cursed when they died for their behaviour. Forced to seek out and consume corpses.
4.4.3 • The Yurei of Aizuwakamata, The Black Hair
4.4.4 • spirits on leave from hell to complete an outstanding mission.
4.4.5 Impressions
4.4.5.1 Unique/different
4.4.5.2 can tell the subject matter is ghosts and demons
4.4.5.3 possession, exorcism and shamanism
4.4.5.4 monster like
4.4.5.5 dark and terrfiying
4.5 The art depicts the spirit of the object rather than the actual object (literally)
4.6 - Pigments came from pants and minerals - rettan yellow (specific pigment) - indigo blue and rouge would come from plants - powdered jade, white pearl, malachite (for green), azurite (for blue) - Black ink made out of soot from pine combined animal glue - made in a stick format (painters have to grind ink with water)
4.7 Rimpa Style
4.7.1 Simple natural subjects such as birds, plants and flowers, background filed with gold leaf
4.7.2 emphasis on refined design and technique
4.7.3 colours are usually bold
4.7.4 images are crisp, distinct and readable from afar
5 Woodprints
5.1 CARVING PROCESS
5.1.1 o cutting the lines with the main carving knife (toh)
5.1.2 o removing wide unwanted areas with the round chisels (marunomi)
5.1.3 o trimming away waste close to the printing areas with the small flat chisels (aisuki)
5.2 History
5.2.1 • Woodblock printing widely used in china but then adopted by japan in the EDO period
5.2.2 initially, the woodblock printing process was used to reproduce traditional hand-scrolls as affordable books, but it was soon adopted as a means to mass-produce prints.
5.2.3 Development of Kento method
5.3 Techniques
5.3.1 complex process involving a series of steps, each performed by a different person that is skilled and specialized in that step
5.3.2 artist draws a sketch (gako) and makes changes by gluing new paper over certain areas
5.3.3 Relief carvings and conscious color application.
5.4 Characteristics

Annotations:

  • "The Unique History and Exquisite Aesthetic of Japan's Ethereal Woodblock Prints." My Modern Met. October 03, 2017. Accessed December 04, 2017. https://mymodernmet.com/ukiyo-e-japanese-woodblock-prints/.
5.4.1 Rich Color Palette
5.4.1.1 ‘The Plum Garden in Kameido' by Andō Hiroshige (1857) Photo: Utagawa; Hiroshige (I) , Utagawa died 1858; Uoya Eikichi Hiroshige (I) [Public domain, Public domain or CC0], via Wikimedia Commons
5.4.2 FLAT COMPOSITIONS
5.4.2.1 ‘Bathhouse Women' by Torii Kiyonaga (c. 1780) Photo: Library of Congress
5.4.3 BOLD LINES
5.4.3.1 ‘Kanbara' by Andō Hiroshige (1833-1934) Photo: Hiroshige [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
5.5 Subjects
5.5.1 Bijinga - young women
5.5.2 Yakushae - popular Kabuki actors
5.5.3 Caricature - comical pictures
5.5.4 Tobae - long-limbed human characters
5.5.5 Comics - Ethan (art manuals)
5.5.6 Shunga - sex scenes
5.5.7 Meishoe - famous landscapes
5.5.8 Mushae - famous samurai, who had appeared in legends, fantastic tales and history
5.5.9 Rekishiga - historically famous scenes
5.6 Materials
5.6.1 made of cherry wood
5.6.2 Chisels used to carve the woodblocks
5.6.3 Paper came from the inner part of Mulberry trees
5.6.4 Reproductions could be made into the thousands before they old would wear down
6 Contemporary Architecture
6.1 Polyhedral Pavilion
6.1.1 art island
6.1.2 white painted, stainless steel framework
6.1.3 acts as mesh
6.1.4 protection from the sun
6.2 Shigeru Bun

Annotations:

  • https://inhabitat.com/8-top-projects-by-2014-pritzker-prize-laureate-shigeru-ban/
6.2.1 philanthropy work around the world
6.2.2 Received the Pritzker Architecture Prize
6.2.3 works in natural disaster areas
6.2.4 golf course building in South Korea
6.2.5 Uses a lot of recycles paper, plastic, and ropes
6.2.6 raditional Japanese architecture designs
6.3 House N
6.3.1 Sou Fujimoto (architect)
6.3.2 connectedness to nature
6.3.3 mix manmade structures and nature
6.3.4 minimalistic
6.3.5 lean lines, lots of windows to connect to the outdoors, lots of natural light
6.3.6 pristine
6.4 Modern technology brought noticeable change
6.5 Challenge: creating tall buildings that were earthquare resistant
6.6 Kenzo Tang

Annotations:

  • https://i.pinimg.com/736x/33/b1/31/33b13198ee3f1b85d84b3090afef0130--concrete-architecture-architecture-art.jpg http://archeyes.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Kenzo-Tange-portrait.jpg
6.6.1 Started with the concept of functional modern works
6.6.2 focused on postmodernism
6.6.3 infusing Japanese aesthetic ideas into contemporary buildings
6.6.4 pillar and beam system with his works
6.6.5 “Architects today tend to depreciate themselves, to regard themselves as no more than just ordinary citizens without the power to reform the future.”
6.7 Olympics 2020 Tokyo Stadium

Annotations:

  • https://static.dezeen.com/uploads/2015/12/Japan-Tokyo-2020-Stadium-Kengo-Kuma_dezeen_sq.jpg
6.7.1 Designed by Kengo Kuma
6.7.2 Extensive use of Japanese wood
6.7.3 Greenery hangs from stadium balconies: connectedness with nature
6.7.4 emphasis on “one with nature” aspect
6.8 Wood used in traditional architecture repurposed in modern Japanese buildings
6.9 Use of glass brings buildings into more contemporary era
6.10 Metabolism
6.10.1 Reverse orientalism
6.10.2 Made to be changeable, nothing static, every room was versatile
6.10.3 Brings up some insecurities of Western culture
6.10.4 Foster feeling folk-dwelling and coming together
6.10.5 Futuristic
6.10.6 Nakagin Capsule Tower, Tokyo. Image © Wikimedia user Jordy Meow licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0
6.11 Complexicity
6.11.1 Non Static
6.11.2 Private
6.11.3 consumption
6.11.4 Death and rebirth
6.11.4.1 response to natural disasters
7 Contemporary Art
7.1 Examples

Annotations:

  • https://theculturetrip.com/asia/japan/articles/top-10-japanese-contemporary-artists-you-should-know/
7.1.1 Riusuke Fukahori - Goldfish

Annotations:

  • https://www.widewalls.ch/10-japanese-artists-under-50/riusuke-fukahori/
7.1.1.1 extraordinary three-dimensional paintings
7.1.1.2 Aichi Art University in 1995
7.1.2 Mariko Mori, ‘Infinite Energy’, 2013. Work with the support of Espace Louis Vuitton Tokyo | © Louis Vuitton / Jérémie Souteyrat
7.1.3 Chiharu Shiota
7.1.3.1 creates large-scale, site-specific visual installations
7.1.3.2 themes of memory and oblivion
7.1.3.3 Her most celebrated works are impenetrable webs of black thread that enclose a variety of household, personal, and everyday objects, such as old chairs, a burnt piano, a wedding dress, and sometimes the artist herself.

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