Patterns in Nature

michaele.wright
Mind Map by michaele.wright, updated more than 1 year ago
michaele.wright
Created by michaele.wright over 5 years ago
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Biology Mind Map on Patterns in Nature, created by michaele.wright on 09/02/2014.

Resource summary

Patterns in Nature
1 Living cells and their structure
1.1 Cell Organelles
1.1.1 Differences between plant and animals cells
1.1.1.1 Plants
1.1.1.1.1 Cell wall on outside of membrane to protect and give the cell its shape
1.1.1.1.2 Have Chloroplasts present containing green chlorophyll pigment that absorbs light energy (site of photosynthesis)
1.1.1.1.3 contain large vacuoles (storage)
1.1.2 Major organelles structure and functions
1.1.2.1 Nucleus
1.1.2.1.1 control centre of the cell containing genetic material (DNA)
1.1.2.2 Nucleolous (located in the nucleus)
1.1.2.2.1 site for production of RNA "messenger chemical that holds the instructions for the organelles. surrounded by a nuclear membrane with pores allowing RNA through
1.1.2.3 Mitochondria
1.1.2.3.1 site of cellular respiration "power stations" converting energy from food (photosynthesis) into readily usable for of ATP (energy molecule) - contains folded membranes increasing SA
1.1.2.4 Endoplasmic Reticulum
1.1.2.4.1 smooth
1.1.2.4.2 Rough
1.1.2.4.2.1 covered in RIBOSOMES
1.1.2.4.2.1.1 Site of protein production
1.1.2.4.3 both: network of membranes forming channels and compartments in the cytoplasm
1.1.2.5 Golgi Apparatus
1.1.2.5.1 in charge of packaging chemicals into membrane sacks for either storage or secretion from the cell
1.1.2.5.2 Lysosomes
1.1.2.5.2.1 destroy/break down any foreign bodies in cell and rapidly digest dead contents (waste desposal)
1.2 Cell theory
1.2.1 All living things are made up of cells
1.2.1.1 all cells come from pre-existing cells
1.2.2 types of microscopes
1.2.2.1 Light
1.2.2.2 Electron
1.2.3 History of our knowledge of cells
1.2.3.1 Virchow and Flemming clarified cell division --> all cells come from pre-existing cells
1.2.3.2 Robert Hooke observed a piece of cork and noted "cell" type compartments
1.2.3.3 Robert Brown discovered structures "organelles" in cells, noted the nucleus
2 chemicals move in and out through membranes
2.1 Cell Chemicals
2.1.1 Identifying tests
2.1.1.1 Glucose: tested by Benedict's solution (yellow or orange)
2.1.1.2 Starch: tested by Iodine Solution (dark blue or black)
2.1.1.3 Protein: tested by Biuret (Purple)
2.2 Structure of Cell Membranes
2.2.1 Two layers of phospholipids. molecules cling to each other in a line up with hydrophilic ends on outside, attracted to water solution in cytoplasm. Hydrophobic ends repelled, cling together inside the membrane. Other molecule in phospholipid bi-layer; proteins, carbohydrates serving purposes of receptors for messenger chemicals, identification markers identifying own cells from foreign invaders and helping chemicals through the membrane.
2.3 Passive transport (uses no energy ATP)
2.3.1 diffusion
2.3.1.1 movement of molecules/ions from an area of high concentration to an area of low through
2.3.2 Osmosis
2.3.2.1 Diffusion of water through a semi-permiable membrane from an area of low concentration to an area of low
2.4 SA: VOL ratio
3 Nutrition in plants and animals
3.1 Photosynthesis
3.1.1 water + carbon dioxide --> glucose + oxygen
3.1.2 occurs in chlorophyll in leave of plants, capturing energy from light and stores it in high energy food compound --> glucose
3.2 Cellular Respiration
3.2.1 Glucose + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water
3.2.2 Releases stored energy in for of ATP --> powers all cellular and life activities
3.3 Structure and functions of a leaf
3.3.1 Factory for photosynthesis
3.3.2 Waxy cuticle layer: allows light through + water proof preventing excess water loss
3.3.3 upper epidermis layer: transparent letting in light
3.3.4 Palisade layer: tightly packed under epidermis layer absorbing maximum light containing chloroplasts "engine room" for photosynthesis
3.3.5 Spongy layer: loosely packed cells --> allows for gas exchange via diffusion
3.3.6 Lower epidermal layer: many openings (stomates) allowing water to evaporate throught process of TRANSPIRATION and carbon dioxide diffuses into leaf and oxygen out
3.3.6.1 Stomata (stomates)
3.3.6.1.1 opening formed between special "guard cells" that close to minimise water loss in dry periods and open when right condtions
3.4 Digestion in Animals
3.4.1 Comparisons in structures compared to diet
3.4.1.1 Carnivore: Sharp teeth, tear at food and swallow in chunks --> relatively short intestinal tract, elastic stomach to hold large amounts of food
3.4.1.2 Herbivore: flat grinding teeth, long intestinal tract (longer time for digestion), Bacteria living in gut have enzymes to digest cellulose
3.4.1.3 Nectar Eaters: Simple digestive tract (sugars are simple to digest)
4 Gas exchange and internal transport
4.1 Gas exchange in animals
4.1.1 frogs:simpler than mammals, dont have alveoli. Gas exchange also happens through their skin, mouth and throat cavities --> are kept moist and lined with blood vessels.
4.1.2 Mammals: (humans) lungs contain alveoli to increase surface area, inside of lungs also moist allowing gases to dissolve and diffuse
4.1.3 insects: dont have lungs, has holes called spiracles allowing air to move through network of tubes (trachea) infiltrating the body. Efficient in small animals, not in larger ones
4.1.4 Fish: gas exchange occurs through feather like plates consisting of thousands of tiny filaments each filled with blood capillaries in which water flows over taking in oxygen. Blood flow in gills is opposite than flow of water making exchange more efficient.
4.2 Circulatory systems in animals
4.2.1 open system (insects)
4.2.1.1 Simpler circulatory system where the blood doesnt always stay inside a blood vessel and the blood isnt forced to flow constantly
4.2.2 Closed (vertebrates)
4.2.2.1 Blood is always flowing inside a blood vessel, pumped around by the heart. highly efficient keeping the blood flowing. guaranteeing a steady flow of nutrients, gasses and wastes between body cells and the outside environment
4.3 Gas exchange and transport in plants
4.3.1 Phloem tissue (active transport)
4.3.1.1 tubes transporting sugars and nutrients from the leaves through out the plant to other un-photosynthesising parts
4.3.2 Xylem Tissue (passive transport)
4.3.2.1 Carry water and dissolved minerals from roots to leaves in an upward movement
5 Cell division for growth and repair
5.1 process of mitosis
5.1.1 Parent cell makes a copy of its genetic information
5.1.1.1 chromosomes group together and line up in middle of the cell before separating into to identical groups
5.1.1.1.1 set of chromosomes forms new nucleus
5.1.1.1.1.1 Cell membrane grows and divides cell into two parts with a sharing of cytoplasm and organelles in each
5.1.1.1.1.1.1 Creates 2 daughter cells identical to the parent
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