Crime and Punishment 1900-Present Day

Tom Lea
Mind Map by Tom Lea, updated more than 1 year ago
Tom Lea
Created by Tom Lea almost 4 years ago
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GCSE Crime and Punishment (Modern 1900-Present Day) Mind Map on Crime and Punishment 1900-Present Day, created by Tom Lea on 03/28/2018.

Resource summary

Crime and Punishment 1900-Present Day
  1. Crime and Criminals
    1. 1900-1955
      1. Slow, gradual rise in crime rate
        1. Impact of WWII
          1. Blitz - criminals took advantage. Loot bombed houses
            1. Black market developed due to rationing.
              1. Crime rate expected to fall after 1945 - it didn't
              2. 1955 key turning point - significant increase in crime after this point
                1. Murder rate does decrease but only because medical advance keeps victims alive
              3. Rapid rise 1955-Present
                1. Football Hoolilganism
                  1. Peak in 1970s & 80s
                    1. e.g. 1984 Heysel - Liverpool fans riot - wall collapses - 39 dead
                      1. Reduced since late 80s
                        1. CCTV
                          1. prices rise = wealthier fans who don't want to fight
                            1. Stadiums are now seated - numbers in grounds now strictly controlled
                          2. Car Crime
                            1. Alcohol limits first in place 1967
                              1. 1983 - seat belts compulsory
                                1. 1992 - speed cameras
                                  1. 1896 - first car crime. Speeding at 8mph! Speed limit in towns was 2mph!
                                  2. Race/hate crimes
                                    1. Became an issue after sudden rise in immigration following WWII
                                      1. Came from Commonwealth countries. HMS Windrush 1st ship.
                                      2. Race Relation Acts passed - 1965, '68 & '76
                                        1. Made it a crime to deny jobs on account of race
                                          1. Now a crime to encourage racial hatred
                                            1. However: Didn't change much - race crime continued
                                            2. Stephen Lawrence murder (1993) became turning point
                                              1. Inquiry found police were 'institutionally racist'
                                                1. New laws - 'hate crimes' introduced - tougher sentences if crimes motivated by racism, homophobia etc
                                                  1. Caused police to take new approach - training, recruitment etc.
                                              2. Drugs
                                                1. Early issues: Cocaine sent to soldiers in WWI - army complained so banned in 1920
                                                  1. Became big prob in 1960s -hippies etc.
                                                    1. 1971 Misuse of Drugs Act
                                                      1. Aim: stamp out growing drug culture
                                                        1. However: Drug use and smuggling continued to rise.
                                                        2. Harsh sentences: 14yrs for supply of Class A - increased to life in 1985
                                                          1. Classes of drugs - A, B & C
                                                          2. Causes lots of crime - theft to pay for drugs, assaults, organised crime gangs etc
                                                          3. Cyber Crime
                                                            1. Sparked by rise of the internet in 1990s
                                                              1. Illegal downloading - films, music etc - makes otherwise honest people criminals
                                                                1. Online banking - opportunities for fraud.
                                                                  1. 2015 - cyber crime included in crime stats for 1st time - official crime rate doubled!
                                                              2. Enforcement
                                                                1. Police force
                                                                  1. Reasons for less positive view since 1950s
                                                                    1. Police Cars - less 'bobbies on the beat'
                                                                      1. Traffic offences - lots of otherwise law abiding people caught for speeding, using mobiles etc
                                                                        1. Corruption - 1980s, West Midlands force revealed to be corrupt. 2014 - West Yorkshire force admitted covering up mistakes in 1989 Hilsborough disaster
                                                                        2. Important changes since 1900
                                                                          1. Organisation: used to be 200 seperate forces, 1964 this changed - now only 43
                                                                            1. Recruitment training and pay: 1900 - untrained, uneducated working class men. Now - men, women, well educated, decent pay
                                                                              1. Specialisation: Now have specialist teams for everything e.g. crowd/riot control, armed response, forensics, anti terrorism
                                                                                1. Use of weapons - ordinary spolice still dont carry guns. But 5% specialist offices now do. Also new weaposn like tasers, pepper spray.
                                                                              2. Courts
                                                                                1. 1971 Courts Act: assizes, quater sessions, etc all abolished. Replaced by Crown Courts
                                                                                  1. Women: 1919 - Women can be on juries. 1920 - 1st female magistrate (JP). Women now outnumber male magistrates
                                                                                    1. Juvenile Courts: 1908 juvenile courts introduced for 7-16 yr olds
                                                                                      1. Crown Prosecution Service: police used to decide if a case went to court. 1986 - CPS introduced, their job to decide if evidence is good enough to have a trial.
                                                                                        1. Juries: 1974 - no longer have to own property (be rich basically!) to be on a jury. Internet causes problems - trials have to be restarted if jurors are found to have researched the crime online
                                                                                        2. New Technology
                                                                                          1. Identifying Criminals
                                                                                            1. 1901 - Discovery of diff blood groups
                                                                                              1. 1902 - Finger prints first used in court
                                                                                                1. 1984 - discovery all DNA is unique - DNA fingerprinting used ever since.
                                                                                                2. Communication
                                                                                                  1. 1929 - Blue police tlephone boxes intorduced in London
                                                                                                    1. Mid 1960s - radios installed in cars, 1969 1st portable radios
                                                                                                      1. Computers mean that data can be stored or records checked quickly and easily
                                                                                                      2. Surveillance
                                                                                                        1. CCTV - monitors traffic and pedestrians
                                                                                                          1. phones, emails, texts are frequently monitored - 650,000 times in 2015
                                                                                                      3. Punishment
                                                                                                        1. Capital punishement
                                                                                                          1. Arguments for
                                                                                                            1. deterrent
                                                                                                              1. mistakes are rare
                                                                                                                1. Life for a life
                                                                                                                2. Arguments against
                                                                                                                  1. mistakes can be made
                                                                                                                    1. Killing is wrong - Govt shouldn't do it
                                                                                                                    2. Moves towards abolition
                                                                                                                      1. 1908 - banned for under 16s
                                                                                                                        1. 1947 - House of Commons voted for abolition, House of Lords blocked it
                                                                                                                          1. Derek Bentley - mental age 10 - executed - public outcry
                                                                                                                            1. 1957 Abolished but kept for murder of police officer 1969 Abolished for all murders
                                                                                                                          2. Prison
                                                                                                                            1. Prison reform
                                                                                                                              1. Sir Alexander Paterson 1922-47
                                                                                                                                1. 'prison is a punishment not for punishment'
                                                                                                                                  1. Reforms: Heads not shaved, silence rules relaxed, education of prisoners, meaningful work paid small amounts for work
                                                                                                                                    1. Move towards REHABILITATION
                                                                                                                                  2. Separate prison for mentally ill patients - Broadmoor Hospital
                                                                                                                                    1. By end of century still problems - overcrowding, riots, very expensive
                                                                                                                                    2. Young offenders
                                                                                                                                      1. Young offenders sent to 'Borstals' not full prison
                                                                                                                                        1. Still very tough
                                                                                                                                        2. 1988 - Borstals replaced by Young Offenders institutions for 18-20
                                                                                                                                          1. Lots of education
                                                                                                                                          2. 1908 - Parliament sets a minimum age you can be responsible for a crime - 7 yrs old
                                                                                                                                            1. Age changes over century - currently 10
                                                                                                                                          3. Alternatives
                                                                                                                                            1. Community service
                                                                                                                                              1. Unpaid work
                                                                                                                                              2. Electronic tags
                                                                                                                                                1. Parole - early release - return to prison if break conditions
                                                                                                                                              3. Corporal Punishment
                                                                                                                                                1. Whipping - used as punishment for centuries.
                                                                                                                                                  1. Moves towards end
                                                                                                                                                    1. 1933 - ended for young offenders
                                                                                                                                                      1. 1948 - abolished as a punishment for adults
                                                                                                                                                        1. 1962 - abolished as punishment in prisons
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