The nature of dreams

Mind Map by Hayd23, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by Hayd23 almost 7 years ago


A-Levels PY4 (Levels of Consciousness) Mind Map on The nature of dreams, created by Hayd23 on 06/16/2013.

Resource summary

The nature of dreams
1 Psychological theories
1.1 Freud's psycholoanalytic theory
1.1.1 Freud - "the interpretation of dreams is the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activities of the mind"
1.1.2 Freud proposed that dreams have meanings that manifest themselves through symbols in the content of the dream
1.1.3 saw dreams as being the channel for psychic/sexual energy which he called libido energy is like an electrical current; could build up and try to find release if not released in a satisfying way, it could result in physical or mental pain
1.1.4 aspects of dreams


  • Wish fulfilment - a dream may be seen as an expression of unconscious wishes; if the desire for something is socially / personally prohibited, it may present itself in a dream, Dreamwork - dreams often symbolically represent something that is prohibited, Manifest content - what can be remember and reported, Latent content - hidden part of the dream; often found in symbols, Condensation - 2 or more ideas may be represented by one object, word or situation, Displacement - in the dream, a person / object is replaced with another, Representation - thoughts are changed into images,
1.1.5 theory is difficult to falsify
1.1.6 theory is based on culturally / historically biased sample of neurotic Viennese women; can't generalise
1.2 Cartwright's problem solving theory
1.2.1 Cartwright - dreams reflect our major emotional concerns
1.2.2 dreams are the body's way of reviewing, revising, rehearsing, and repairing present and past experiences
1.2.3 dreams provide coping strategies for emotional problems
1.2.4 Barrett (1993) studied students who were instructed to solve a problem; a panel of judges found 50% of students dreamt a solution however, it's only 50%
2 Neurobiological theories
2.1 Activation synthesis
2.1.1 sleep is prompted by natural cycles of activity in the brain; REM and NREM
2.1.2 during sleep, body cycles between NREM and REM; dreams occur in REM; REM is a mixture of brain states of excitement and muscular immobility
2.1.3 activiation Hobson & McCarley (1977) - during REM sleep, the brainstem generates random signals that are indistinguishable from external stimuli
2.1.4 synthesis bizzare nature of dreams is due to the mixing of the electrical signals from the brain stem with stored images in memory
2.1.5 Hobson (1988) supports activation synthesis; he found that PP's' REM sleep and dreaming both increased when they were infected with drugs that increased acetylcholine
2.2 Reverse learning
2.2.1 Critch & Mitchison (1983) - reverse learning model relates to the brain switching off during the dreaming process
2.2.2 reverse learning model helps us dream in order to forget; large amounts of info received during the day makes the cortex unable to function without 'parasitic' thoughts starting to develop unwanted connections in the cortical networks during REM sleep are destroyed by impulses parasitic thoughts are represented by the content of the dreams as they are then erased from memory
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