Explain why the Papacy supported William in 1066

Alan Thomson
Mind Map by Alan Thomson, updated more than 1 year ago
Alan Thomson
Created by Alan Thomson over 5 years ago


Mind Map on Explain why the Papacy supported William in 1066, created by Alan Thomson on 09/26/2014.

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Explain why the Papacy supported William in 1066
1 Introduction
1.1 Even before he attempted to gain the throne of England in 1066, Duke William of Normandy had a successful relationship with the papacy. William was a supporter of the programme of moral reform advocated by the papacy
1.1.1 William was a model of Christian morality – a pious prince who held reforming councils in his duchy. His key advisor, Lanfranc, the Prior of Bec, was a leading European theologian and favourite son of the Church. Indeed, Pope Alexander II was a pupil of Lanfranc’s.
2 The impact of Harold's oath
2.1 The key theme in the Bayeux Tapestry is Harold's oath to William; Norman propaganda that Harold was an oath-breaker - a perjured usurper whose coronation was invalid
3 The condition of the English Church
3.1 The English church was known on the continent for being highly corrupt, for example, Archbishop Stigand was a schismatic and guilty of pluralism , also clerical marriage and nepotism were rife within the clergy.
3.1.1 William’s ambassador stressed this to the pope and promised to reform the church in line with those reforms coming in on the continent, to reduce lay influence over the church, stamp out corruption and reinforce the power of the papacy in Rome.
4 William's diplomacy/promises
4.1 William's ambassador to the Papacy, Gilbert, archdeacon of Lisieux, made a case for the Duke by pointing out his relationship to Edward, the designation of the throne in 1051-2, and Harold's oath in 1064-5; and he created prejudice against Harold by repeating the current story, true or false, that Harold had been consecrated by the excommunicate Stigand. It was easy in fact to represent Harold as a perjured usurper fraudulently crowned.
4.1.1 William also made attractive promises; he would reform the English church and to resume payment of Peter's Pence ( a traditional annual payment to support the Papacy), which appears to have stopped. It seems that Gilbert also held out hopes that the duke, if successful, would hold England as a papal fief.
5 Papal ambition
5.1 Political
5.1.1 it would be an opportunity for the reformed papacy to spread its influence and gain important international support - Gilbert may have suggested England would become a Papal fief
5.2 Religious
5.2.1 it was an opportunity to spread ideals of Church reform, and rectify clerical abuses in England
5.3 Financial
5.3.1 the papacy would demand the payment of Peter’s Pence, the traditional payment made by national churches to the pope.
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