Musculoskeletal System

mawbyharriet
Mind Map by mawbyharriet, updated more than 1 year ago
mawbyharriet
Created by mawbyharriet over 6 years ago
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University Musculoskeletal System Mind Map on Musculoskeletal System, created by mawbyharriet on 07/03/2013.
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Musculoskeletal System
1 Functions of muscular tissue
1.1 Producing body movement
1.2 Stalbalising body positions
1.3 Storing and moving substances within the body
1.4 Generating heat
2 Types of muscular tissue
2.1 Cardiac - involuntary
2.1.1 Endocardium, myocardium, pericardium. Exclusive to the heart. Contracts to squeeze blood out of the heart. Does not tire.
2.2 Smooth (visceral)
2.2.1 Found in internal muscles. Functions include: - peristalsis in digestive system - goosebumps -involuntary
2.3 Skeletal (striated)
2.3.1 Attached to the skeletal by tendons. Functions: - movement, posture, heat production, voluntary.
3 Describe the structure
3.1 Cardiac
3.1.1 Striations
3.1.2 muscle fibres are short and intercalated discs.
3.1.3 Network of autorythmic fibres
3.2 Smooth
3.2.1 unstriated
3.2.2 Contains single nucleus
3.2.3 No sheath
3.2.4 2 Types: Visceral (single unit) and Multi-unit.
3.3 Skeletal
3.3.1 Cylindrical fibres
3.3.2 Multi-nucleated
3.3.3 Striated
3.3.4 Complex
4 List the components and functions of the skeletal system
4.1 Axial Skeleton - Central
4.2 Appendicular Skeleton - girdles and appendages
4.3 FUNCTIONS:
4.3.1 Provides a framework
4.3.2 Movement
4.3.3 Mineral storage
4.3.4 Protection
4.3.5 Homeostasis
5 Identify the 5 types of bone
5.1 Long (humerus)
5.2 Short (trapazoid)
5.3 Irregular (vertebrae)
5.4 Flat (Sternum)
5.5 Sesamoid (patella)
6 microscopic and macroscopic bone structure
6.1 OSTEOGENIC CELLS ( -genic = producing)
6.1.1 Unspecialised stem cell, only bone cells that undergo cell division. Found: inner portion of periosteum, endosteum, canals within bone carrying blood vessels.
6.2 OSTEOBLASTS ( -blasts = buds or sprouts)
6.2.1 Bone building cells. Functions: >Synethesise and secrete collagen fibres and other componenets of extracellular matrix. >Initiate calcification
6.3 OSTEOCYTES ( - clasts = break)
6.3.1 Large cells formed from fusion - up to 50 monocytes. > Found in endosteum > Resorption
7 Muscle
7.1 Composed of cells that can contract to produce movement
7.2 Cells are also called muscle fibres
7.3 Around 650 muscles in the body - half of body weight
7.4 Movement is either voluntary or involuntary
8 Major muscles groups
8.1 Muscles used to administer intramusclular injections
8.1.1 Deltoid (Shoulder)
8.1.2 Vastus lateralis and rectus femoral (thigh)
8.1.3 Dorsogluteal (bottom)
8.1.4 Ventrogluteal (side of bottom)
8.2 BACK: - Trapezius - Lattissmus Dorsi
8.3 CHEST: - Pectoralis major - External oblique
8.4 ABDOMEN: - Rectus abdominis - External oblique
8.5 LEG: - Gluteus Maximus - Vastus lateralis - Rectus femoris - Gastronemuis
8.6 Arm: - Deltoid -Triceps brachii - Biceps brachii - Brachialis
9 Bone growth and remodeling
9.1 BONE GROWTH: throughout childhood and adolescence - in thickness - in length
9.2 BONE REMODELING: Continual renewal throughout life. Replacement of old bone tissue by new involves: BONE RESORPTION: Removal of minerals and collagen by osteoclasts. BONE DEPOSITION: Addition of minerals and collagen by osteoblasts.
9.3 Factors affecting bone growth and remodeling: > Vitamins > Minerals > Hormones > Exercise
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