AQA Biology A2 Unit 4 Respiration

Gemma Lucinda
Mind Map by , created almost 5 years ago

Mind Map on AQA Biology A2 Unit 4 Respiration, created by Gemma Lucinda on 10/08/2014.

Gemma Lucinda
Created by Gemma Lucinda almost 5 years ago
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1) Glycoloysis
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AQA Biology A2 Unit 4 Respiration
1 Aerobic
1.1 Oxygen present
1.2 4 stages: Glycolysis, Link Reaction, Krebs Cycle & Electron Transport Chain
1.2.1 1: GLYCOLYSIS Occurs in the cytoplasm Break down of Glucose 6C into 2 x Pyruvate 3C 1. Phosphorylation of Glucose Glucose + 2 Pi from hydrolysis of ATP gives energy (Lower AE for next reactions) 2. Splitting of phosphorylated Glucose. 1 x Glucose (6C) ---> 2 x Triose Phosphate molecules (3C) 3. Oxidation (H loss) of Triose Phosphate NAD + H ---> Reduced NAD 4. 2 x ATP Produced ( Direct Substrate Level Phosphorylation). Enzymes control reaction to 2 x Triose Phosphate ---> 2 x Pyruvate (3C) Pi + ADP ---> 4 x ATP However, 2 x ATP hydrolysed at start, so NET ATP = 2. (+ 2 x Pyruvate & 2 x Reduced NAD) Does not require oxygen
1.2.2 2: LINK REACTION Occur in the mitochondria. Oxidation (H loss) of Pyruvate from Glycolysis. 2 x Pyruvate actively transported from cytoplasm to mitochondria.
1.2.3 4: ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN Occurs on the cristae using enzymes on the membrane to synthesise ATP. The H on the reduced coenzymes loss the eletrons; it is these that are transported along the ETC. 1: Coenzymes Reduced NAD & FAD are OXIDISED (loss) and releases electrons and H to create a proton gradient. 2: Electron is passed along protein carriers, losing energy as it goes. 3: Series of Oxidation and Reduction reactions. OXYGEN is the FINAL RECEPTOR and combines with H ---> WATER. 4: Electron energy is now stored in the proton gradient. This energy synthesises ATP (INDIRECT OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION) + ATP synthase on the stalked particles..
1.2.4 3: KREBS CYCLE Occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria. Break down of Acetylcoenzyme (2C + 4C molecule) into smaller (4C) molecule. Produces 1 x ATP + Reduced FAD & NAD + 2 x Carbon Dioxide.
2 Anaerobic
2.1 In Animals. NO Carbon Dioxide is released. However, In plants, Carbon Dioxide is released!
2.2 If no Oxygen is available, the H from reduced NAD (glycolysis) + pyruvate ---> lactate.
2.3 Oxidised NAD recombines with H in glycolysis.