CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

offintowonderland
Mind Map by , created almost 5 years ago

Basic overview of the cardiovascular system

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offintowonderland
Created by offintowonderland almost 5 years ago
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CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
1 FUNCTIONS OF THE BLOOD
1.1 Transport gasses e.g. oxygen & CO2
1.2 Distributes nutrients e.g. proteins/lipids/carbohydrates
1.3 Transport metabolic waste
1.4 Delivers enzymes & hormones e.g Adrenaline
1.5 Regulate pH & Electrolytes e.g. salts
1.6 Defends body against toxins & pathogens
1.7 Regulate body temperature
1.8 Restricts fluid loss through damaged vessels
2 COMPOSITION OF BLOOD
2.1 Blood cells = 45%
2.2 Plasma = 55%
3 TYPES OF BLOOD CELLS
3.1 Ethrocytes = red cells
3.2 Thrombocytes = platelets
3.3 Leukocytes = white cells
4 TYPES OF BLOOD VESSELS
4.1 Arteries
4.1.1 Arterioles (small artery)
4.1.2 Carry blood away from heart
4.1.3 Oxygenated blood
4.1.4 High pressure
4.1.5 Thick muscular elastic walls
4.1.5.1 3 layers thick
4.1.6 Expand & accommodate increase blood volume
4.2 Veins
4.2.1 Venules (small veins)
4.2.2 Carry blood to heart
4.2.3 Deoxygenated blood
4.2.4 Valves present
4.2.5 Lower pressure
4.2.6 Thin elastic walls
4.2.6.1 2 layers thick
4.3 Capillaries
4.3.1 Smallest vessel
4.3.2 Extremely narrow
4.3.3 1 layer thick
4.3.4 Carry blood from artery to vein
4.3.5 Pressure is low
4.3.6 Flow of blood slow
4.3.7 Gaseous exchange & nutrients occur
4.4 Heart
5 HEART WALL
5.1 Pericardium
5.1.1 Outer layer
5.1.2 Blood lymph capillaries & nerve fibres
5.2 Myocardium
5.2.1 Thin middle layer
5.2.2 Cardiac muscle tissue
5.3 Endocardium
5.3.1 Inner layer
5.3.2 Forms part of valves in heart
6 HEART CHAMBERS
6.1 Left Atrium
6.2 Left Ventricle
6.3 Right Atrium
6.4 Right Ventricle
7 SYSTOLE
7.1 1. Contraction of heart muscle
7.2 2. Atria relax & expands
7.3 3. Semi lunar valve open
7.4 4. Tricuspid & Bicuspid valve closed
7.5 5. ventricles contract
7.6 6. Blood flows to lungs & body
8 DIASTOLE
8.1 Relaxation of heart muscle
8.2 1. Atria contracts
8.3 2. Semi lunar valve closed
8.4 3. Tricuspid & Bicuspid valves open
8.5 4. Ventricles relax & expand
8.6 5. Blood flows from atria to ventricles
9 HEART BEAT
9.1 Myogenic
9.1.1 Inilated from within heart muscle
9.2 Automatic nerve system in control
9.3 Cardiac control centre influence cerebrum & hypothalamus
9.4 Be stimulated or inhibited by nerve impulses
9.5 Release of adrenaline from adrenal medulla is control factor
10 SA NODE
10.1 Located in wall of right atria near vena cava
10.2 Determines heartbeat
10.3 Initiate heartbeat
10.4 Usually keeps heartbeat regular
10.5 Automatic excitation pulse every 0.85 sec
10.6 Cause artria to contract
10.7 If SA fails, heart still beats but slower
10.8 (Sinoatrial)
11 AV NODE
11.1 Located base of right artria near septum
11.2 Neuromuscular tissue
11.3 Signals ventricles to contract
11.4 Sends impulses to bundle of His
11.4.1 Then throughout ventricular walls
11.5 Wave of excitation conducted along purkinje fibres
11.6 (Atrioventricular)
12 ECG
12.1 Measures electrical activity
12.2 Consists of waves
12.2.1 P
12.2.1.1 Movement from SA to AV node
12.2.2 QRS
12.2.2.1 Movement down centre across ventricle
12.2.3 T
12.2.3.1 ventricle repolarisation
12.3 Detects abnormal heartbeats
12.4 Arrhythmia = abnormal heart rhythm
12.5 Fibrillation = Heart beating rapidly & contractions uncoordinated

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