THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

offintowonderland
Mind Map by offintowonderland, updated more than 1 year ago
offintowonderland
Created by offintowonderland over 5 years ago
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Mind Map on THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM, created by offintowonderland on 10/17/2014.

Resource summary

THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
1 COMPONENTS OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT
1.1 Sinus
1.2 Nasal cavity
1.3 External nose
1.4 Nostril
1.5 Buccal cavity
1.6 Pharynx
1.7 Glottis
1.8 Epiglottis
1.9 Larynx
1.10 Larynx
1.11 Esophagus
1.12 Trachea
2 UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT FUNCTIONS
2.1 Passageway for respiration
2.2 Receptors for smell (taste)
2.3 Filters incoming air to filter foreign materials (cillia)
2.4 Moistens & warms air
2.5 Resonating chambers for voice
3 COPONENTS OF LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT
3.1 Larynx
3.2 Trachea
3.3 Right bronchus
3.4 Left bronchus
3.5 Bronchioles
3.6 Alveoli
4 LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT FUNCTIONS
4.1 Larynx
4.1.1 Maintain open airway
4.1.2 Routes air & food appropriately
4.1.3 Assists in sound production
4.2 Trachea
4.2.1 Transports air to & from lungs
4.3 Bronchi
4.3.1 Branch into lungs
4.4 Lungs
4.4.1 Transports air to alveoli for gaseous exchange
5 4 RESPIRATION PROCESSESS
5.1 Breathing
5.1.1 Air in & out of lungs
5.1.2 Mechanical process
5.2 External respiration
5.2.1 Gaseous exchange between air & blood
5.3 Internal respiration
5.3.1 Gaseous exchange between blood & tissues
5.3.2 Final destination is cells
5.3.3 Ethrocyctes cells lined with haemoglobin
5.4 Celluar respiration
5.4.1 Oxygen to produce ATP (energy)
5.4.2 CO2 as waste
6 RESPIRATION INCLUDES
6.1 Pulmonary ventilation
6.1.1 Air in & out of lungs
6.1.2 Heart takes in O2 & takes CO2 out
6.1.3 Continuous replacement of gases in alveoli
6.2 External respiration
6.2.1 Gaseous exchange between blood & air
6.2.2 O2 in air diffuses into blood
6.2.3 CO2 in blood diffuses into air
6.3 Transport of respiratory gases
6.3.1 Beween lungs & cells of body
6.3.2 Performed via cardiovascular system
6.3.3 Blood is the tranporting liquid
6.4 Internal respiration
6.4.1 Gaseous exchange in capillaries between blood & tissue
6.4.2 O2 in blood diffuses into tissues
6.4.3 CO2 waste diffuses into blood
7 THE RESPIRATORY MEMBRANE
7.1 Type 1 cells
7.1.1 Single layer of squamous epitheial tissue
7.1.2 Covered by pulmonary capillaries
7.1.3 Responsible for gaseous exchange
7.1.4 External structure
7.2 Type II cells
7.2.1 Cuboidal epithetial
7.2.2 Secretory function
7.2.3 Responsible for sythesis & release of surfactant fluid
7.2.3.1 Fluid prevents lungs sticking together & collapsing
7.2.4 Internal structure
8 SURFACANT FLUID
8.1 Produced from secreting cells
8.2 Provides coating inside alveoil
8.3 Prevents alveolar walls sticking
8.4 Important in increasing compliance
9 THE REPSIRATORY TRACT
9.1 Nose
9.1.1 Air is warmed & moistened
9.1.2 Lined with sweat glands & sebaceous
9.1.3 Mucus is secreted
9.1.3.1 Protects epithelium from foreign bodies & fluid loss
9.1.3.2 Secretion & clearance important for airway integrity & defence
9.1.3.3 Hyper-secretion & impaired clearance
9.1.3.3.1 Impair pulmonary function (difficulty breathing)
9.1.3.3.2 Reduces lung defences
9.1.3.3.3 More likely to become infected
9.1.3.3.4 Abnormal secretions (excess mucus)
9.1.4 Cillia acts as filter for foreign bodies
9.1.5 Thin blood vessels radiate heat & warm air
9.1.6 Sensory cells detect chemical substances
9.2 Pharynx
9.2.1 Junction of nose & mouth
9.2.2 Lined with mucus membrane
9.2.3 Anatomic regions
9.2.3.1 Nasopharynx
9.2.3.2 Larygoharynx
9.2.3.3 Oropharynx
9.3 Larynx
9.3.1 Part of air passage & voice production
9.3.2 Consits of thyroid, epiglottis & vocal cords
9.3.3 Surrounded by larygenal cartilage
9.3.4 2 bands of tissue attatched to larynx to form vocal cords
9.3.5 Vocal cords vibrate to produce different sounds
9.4 Trachea
9.4.1 Always open
9.4.2 Supported by cartilage
9.4.3 Adjacent to oseophagus
9.4.4 Expand as food passes down to stomach
9.4.5 Infant trachea is much shorter than adult
9.5 Bronchi
9.5.1 Trachea divides into 2 branches
9.6 Bronchioles
9.6.1 Bronchi subdivided repeatedly
9.7 Alveoli
9.7.1 Walls 1 cell layer thick
9.7.2 Oxygen dissolves in moist lining
9.7.3 In blood, oxygen absorbed by ethrocyctes
9.7.4 Higher concentration of oxygen
9.7.5 Lower concentration of CO2
10 GASEOUS EXCHANGE
10.1 Process of absorbing O2 & giving out CO2
10.2 O2 from air in alveoli diffuses into blood
10.3 CO2 from blood diffuses into alveoli
10.4 Increase supply of & removal of gases = increase rate of diffusion
10.5 Large surgace area for diffusion
11 BREATHING
11.1 Breathing or pulmonary ventalation is mechanical process
11.2 Regular or automatic process
11.3 Depends on volume chnages in thoratic cavity
11.4 Under control of autonomic nervous system
11.5 CO2 most important factor governing breathing
12 BREATHING MACHANISM
12.1 Inhalation
12.1.1 Intercostal muscles contrat
12.1.2 Rib cage moves up & down
12.1.3 Diaphagm contracts & flattens
12.1.4 Lung volume increases
12.1.5 Pressure in lungs decrease
12.2 Exhalation
12.2.1 Intercostal muscles relax
12.2.2 Ribcage moves upwards
12.2.3 Lung voulme decreases
12.2.4 Pressure in lungs increases
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