1.1 TIP: When asked to describe
population on a global level look for
general patterns and refer to things
like continents, areas and
hemispheres. Remember to name
examples and why its distributed in
1.2 Factors affecting
126.96.36.199 Explanation for high
population:Low lying, flat
areas will encourage
settlement. Flat land is
likely to have a deep soil
layer. For example, The
188.8.131.52 Explanation for low
high mountains area a
place to settle. For
184.108.40.206 Explanation for high population: A
fresh water supply will encourgae
settlement. In the UL we are lucky
not ot have to think abou this.
220.127.116.11 Explanation for low population: Areas
where water supply is inconsitent, in
short supply or polluted will have
difficulty maintaing a population. For
18.104.22.168 Explanation for high
population: A temperate
climate avoids extreme so
Sydney has temperate climate.
22.214.171.124 Explanation for low population:
Harsh climates will discourage
settlement. The harsh climate
of the Australian Outback has
prevented any major
126.96.36.199 Explanation for high
have easily manageable
vegetation. For example, The
South East of the UK.
188.8.131.52 Explanation for low
population:Vegetation such as that
found in the Amazon rainforest can
be a physical barrier to settlement.
184.108.40.206 Explanation for high population:Deep humus
filled soils or those enriched by silt deposits
allow a good agricultural yield so can support a
larger population. For example, The Nile Delta.
220.127.116.11 Explanation for low population:Thin,
unproductive or damaged soils
cannot produce high yields so fail to
support a large population. For
example, The Soils of the Sahel.
1.2.6 Disease and pests
18.104.22.168 Explanation for high population:A
country can have sufficient
finance to eradicate diseases and
pests. For example, in Southern
Italy malarial swamps were
drained removing the disease.
22.214.171.124 Explanation for low population:Many
countries particularly around the
tropics still have huge problems with
diseases and pests. The Bilharzia
Snail is one of the biggest killers in
1.2.7 Political factors
126.96.36.199 Explanation for high population: Areas
that receive high levels of investment are
more likely to have a large population.
Brasilia is an excellent example of this.
188.8.131.52 Explanation for low population:
Rural areas in Mid and West Wales
have had very little investment and
therefore have a low population
184.108.40.206 Explanation for high population:Some of
the biggest growth regions in the UK are
due to the healthy state of their
economies. Silicon glen in Scotland and
Silicon Fen in/near Cambridge in England
are both densely populated because of
the success of the IT industry, which
220.127.116.11 Explanation for low
population:A poorly developed
economy will be unable to
support major populations
such as Mozambique.
18.104.22.168 Explanation for high population: Natural or
later mand made communications will have a
big influence on size of settlement. Rio De
Janeiro has developed around a port.
Manaus' population is a consequence of the
communication link provided by the amazon.
22.214.171.124 Explanation for low
population:Population growth in
northern parts of Scotland has been
hindered by poor natural
communications and a lack of
1.2.10 Natural resources
126.96.36.199 Explanation for high
population:The UK was
able to sustain a large
population because of
the dicovery of easily
188.8.131.52 Explanation for low
population:Many areas in Africa
lack natural resources or more
significantly the finance or
technology to exploit them. Again
you could use Mozambique as an
2.1 A population policy is a deliberate
attempt by the Government to
influence the population of a country.
2.2 Case study:
China's One Child
2.2.1 Why was it introduced?
184.108.40.206 it was introduced to control
and maintain an 'explosive'
population to avoid inevitable
famine, mass starvation, and to
2.2.2 Why has is been criticised?
220.127.116.11 Mothers expecting a second
child are 'encouraged' to have
an abortion. This
encouragement is very forceful.
Some women have abortions at
18.104.22.168 The dependency ratios are
very high and will increase
as the population becomes
22.214.171.124 Evidence of high rates of female infanticide as
parents want male child. The custom in China is
that when a couple marry they go to live with
the males' parents. This means that they will
look after them in old age. If your child is a girl
you will not have anyone to look after you in old
126.96.36.199 Orphanages that are under-funded
look after thousands of abandoned
188.8.131.52 'Little Emperor Syndrome' - there is
a concern that many of the single
children are being badly spoilt
possibly creating a future society of
2.2.3 What were the rules?
184.108.40.206 Before getting married a couple will be
tutored and tested on family planning.
220.127.116.11 Before having a child they have to apply for a
certificate from their factory. Only so many certificates
are issued annually. If the factory meets certain
targets of population control then every worker will
get a wage increase.
18.104.22.168 A couple signing a form promising to have just one child will be given
bonuses at work, receive priority for housing, a school and University place
for the child and higher pensions on retirement. If the family then have an
additional child all benefits are removed. It is also likely to provoke
isolation from their peers as it is not seen as being for the good of the
2.2.4 What were the exceptions?
22.214.171.124 If one child died, or if one was
severley disabled a couple would
be allowed to have more than one.
126.96.36.199 If both parents were single children they
would be allowed to have two children of
2.3 Case Study: France's
2.3.1 What is it?
188.8.131.52 In France following World War One the government
banned all forms of contraception to try and
increase the male population that had been badly
reduced during the war. This law has since been
changed but couples still receive several incentives
to have a third child.
2.3.2 what were the incentives?
184.108.40.206 A payment of up to and over £1000 for having a third child
220.127.116.11 30% reduction on public transport.
18.104.22.168 Increased maternity leave to six months with full
3 Key Statistics
3.1 The population of the world
is growing by 2.7 people per
3.1.1 95% of this growth
is in the less
3.2 Today approximately one in
three people are under
fifteen. This has huge
implications for future
4 Key Words
4.1 Population distribution
4.1.1 The way in which a
population is spread over an
area. This usually requires a
4.2 Population density
4.2.1 The number of
people per specified
area, for example,
4.3 Birth Rates
4.3.1 The number of births per
thousand people per year.
4.4 Death Rates
4.4.1 The number of deaths
per thousand people
4.5 Natural change
4.5.1 This is the difference between
birth rate and death rate. It
tells you by how many the
population is growing per
thousand of the population per
4.6 Population Pyramids
4.6.1 They're a way of displaying the
age/sex structure of a
population. We can analyse it
and plan accordingly.
4.7 Dependancy Ratios
4.7.1 This is the ratios that compares
the percentage of the population
available for work (15-64) to those
5 Demographic Transition Model
5.1 Stage 1
5.1.1 Birth rates and death rates
are high so population is low
22.214.171.124 Reasons for high death rates include an unstable
political society and therefor possible civil unrest. It has
a substinace economy which means food supply is
unreliable. The water supply is also likely to be unclean.
There is very little medical care or social care. Disease
and pests have a dramtic effect on population.
126.96.36.199 High birth rates would be a natural consequence of the
high death rates. People have larger families to
compensate for the high infant mortality and so the
children can work and support the families, especially
when their parents get old. Large Families become part of
culture and religion and men are seen as powerful if they
have lots of children. Womans role in society is very much
as a mother producing children.
5.1.2 For example Amazonial
Tribes and UK
5.2 Stage 2
5.2.1 Death Rates fall but
birth rates remain high.
Natural increase is
greater so population
starts to grow rapidly.
188.8.131.52 The falling death rate would of been as a consequence of a
medical or social breakthrough. For example new hospitals,
vaccinations or legislations to prohibit children working in
factories. Alternatively improvements could of been made to water
supplies or food and shelter. It will usually be a combination of
184.108.40.206 Birth rates remain high as culture and
religion still dictates. There is likely to be very
little access to family planning and
contraception and women still have a very
submissive role in society.
5.2.2 An example is Sri
Lanka or Peru, or
5.3 Stage 3
5.3.1 Birth rates now fall and
death rates continue to
fall. Natural Increase is
still high and population
growth is rapid.
220.127.116.11 Birth Rates will start to fall due to
family planning. People will also start
to appreciate the expense of having a
large family and will opt for fewer
children. Woman are getting a better
deal from society and have access to
the job market and could purse a
career instead of being a full time
18.104.22.168 Death rates continue to fall as
the country continues to
improve medical and social
care, sanitation and living
5.3.2 An example is
China and UK
5.4 Stage 4
5.4.1 Birth Rates and Death Rates
level out. Natural increase is
low so population
22.214.171.124 Society is advanced; woman can
pursue careers and live
independant lives. Families opt
to be smaller because of costs
and other factors.
126.96.36.199 Death Rates remain low.
There is little scope for
5.4.2 Auatralia is a good
example, and Uk from
1940s to present.
5.5 Stage 5
5.5.1 Birth Rates fall below death rates so
natural increase is now negative.
Population will start to decrease.
188.8.131.52 Birth rates fall further because people are waiting
longer to have families. Parents are aware of the
cost to having children so they only have one or
two so they can still have a good house, holidays
and standard of living. Woman have full access to
the job market and family planning is universally
accepted and available.
5.5.2 Japan is at this stage.
6 Population characteristics
6.1 Population characteristics is a way of
seeing different factors of a population,
for example the age/sex balance.
6.2 Population Pyramids
6.2.1 Pyramid One
184.108.40.206 Here the base is very wide indicating a very
high birth rate. The width drops off very
quickly. This means people must be dying. Very
few reach old age. Few countries are still in this
stage today but some rainforest populations
would display this pattern.
220.127.116.11 Implications: Clear need for
investment into water supplies,
health care, food supplies and
housing to reduce death rates.
6.2.2 Pyramid Two
18.104.22.168 Still a large base so high birth rate but also a wider
and taller pyramid as more people are living to older
ages. This is stage two of the demographic transition
model and includes many countries in Africa such as
22.214.171.124 Implications:Probable need to invest in
education about family planning to
reduce birth rate. Possibly indicates that
women are undervalued in society so this
could be tackled.
6.2.3 Pyramid Three
126.96.36.199 Note the more 'domed' shape. It means many
people are living to older ages as quality of life
improves. There are also proportionately fewer
births. This is stage three of the demographic
transition model. Chile would be a good example.
188.8.131.52 Implications:As the population becomes
increasingly older there may be a need to invest in
facilities and services for them. Still a need for
continued investment in family planning.
6.2.4 Pyramid Four
184.108.40.206 Very small base due to the very low birth rates and death rates
displayed in the wide top. This would be representative of
Australia that has recently come through stage three of the
demographic transition model.
220.127.116.11 Implications:Should the situation continue there are serious
implications about providing for the elderly population
(increasing cost of health care, state pensions) especially as the
working population becomes proportionally smaller. This is a
major concern in much of the developed world.
6.2.5 Population Pyramids can be
infulenced by Migrations,
Famines and War.