Biological Molecules

Jack Stewart
Mind Map by Jack Stewart, updated more than 1 year ago
Jack Stewart
Created by Jack Stewart about 2 years ago


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Biological Molecules
1 Mg2+
1.1 Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps to maintain normal nerve and muscle function, supports a healthy immune system, keeps the heart beat steady, and helps bones remain strong.
1.1.1 It also helps regulate blood glucose levels and aid in the production of energy and protein.
2 Fe2+
2.1 Iron is an essential element for blood production. About 70 percent of your body's iron is found in the red blood cells of your blood called hemoglobin and in muscle cells called myoglobin.
2.1.1 Hemoglobin is essential for transferring oxygen in your blood from the lungs to the tissues
3 Ca2+
3.1 Your body uses 99 percent of its calcium to keep your bones and teeth strong, thereby supporting skeletal structure and function.
3.1.1 The rest of the calcium in your body plays key roles in cell signaling, blood clotting, muscle contraction and nerve function.
4 (PO4)3-
4.1 The body needs phosphorus to build and repair bones and teeth, help nerves function, and make muscles contract.
4.1.1 The rest of it is stored in tissues throughout the body. The kidneys help control the amount of phosphate in the blood.
5 H2O
5.1 Of the important biological molecules only the non-polar lipids (fats and oils) and large polymers (e.g. polysaccharides, large proteins and DNA) do not dissolve. The water acts as a solvent for chemical reactions and also helps transport dissolved compounds into and out of cells.
5.1.1 The five main properties of water: Its attraction to polar molecules High-specific heat High heat of vaporization The lower density of ice High polarity
6 Hydrolysis
6.1 Google Definition: The chemical breakdown of a compound (organic) due to reaction with water.
6.1.1 They are characterized by the splitting of a water molecule into a hydrogen and a hydroxide group with one or both of these becoming attached to an organic starting product.
7 Condensation
7.1 Google Definition: The conversion of a vapour or gas to a liquid.
7.1.1 A condensation reaction is a chemical reaction where 2 molecules are joined together by a covalent bond to make a larger, more complex, molecule, with the loss of a small molecule.
8 Carbyhydrates
8.1 Monosaccharides
8.1.1 Triose A triose is a monosaccharide, or simple sugar, containing three carbon atoms. There are only three possible trioses (including Dihydroxyacetone): L-Glyceraldehyde and D-Glyceraldehyde
8.1.2 Pentose A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms. Pentoses are organized into two groups: Aldopentoses have an aldehyde functional group at position 1. Ketopentoses have a ketone functional group at position 2 or 3. In the cell, pentoses have a higher metabolic stability than hexoses.
8.1.3 Hexose In bio-organic chemistry, a hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms, having the chemical formula C6H12O6.
8.2 Disaccharides
8.2.1 Sucrose Sucrose is common table sugar. It is a disaccharide, a molecule composed of two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. Sucrose is produced naturally in plants, from which table sugar is refined. It has the formula C12H22O11.
8.2.2 Lactose Lactose is a type of sugar found naturally in the milk of most mammals. It has the formula C12H22O11
8.2.3 Maltose Maltose is a sugar which is found inside foods that have starch that breaks down. It has the formula C12H22O11.
8.3 Polysaccharide
8.3.1 Starch Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants as energy storage. It has the formula (C6H10O5)n
8.3.2 Cellulose Cellulose is an important structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants, many forms of algae and the oomycetes. Some species of bacteria secrete it to form biofilms. Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. I has the formula (C6H10O5)n
8.3.3 Chittin Chitin is the main ingredient in the exoskeletons of arthropods and crustaceans and is also in the cell walls of fungi. That means everything from beetles, spiders, and butterflies to lobsters, crabs, and shrimp have some chitin in their protective armors.
9 Tryglyceride
9.1 Fats
9.2 Saturated and trans fats increase blood cholesterol and heart attack rates. Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats lower the risk of heart attacks. Obesity – many overweight and obese people have diets high in fat, particularly saturated fat.
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