GCSE AQA Biology - Unit 2

James Jolliffe
Flashcards by , created over 4 years ago

The Day of the Biologist - The Biologists embark on their greatest adventure in this special. In the 21st century, something terrible is awakening in Biondon's National Gallery; in 1562, a murderous plot is afoot in Elizabethan Biongland; and somewhere in space an ancient battle reaches its devastating conclusion. All of reality is at stake as the Biologist's own dangerous past comes back to haunt him.

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James Jolliffe
Created by James Jolliffe over 4 years ago
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Question Answer
What is the purpose of Mitochondria? To release energy through Respiration
What is the purpose of Ribosomes? Protein synthesis takes place in the Ribosomes
What is the cell wall in plants made of? Cellulose
Chloroplasts are the site of ________________. Photosynthesis
What is the stored in a Plant's Vacuole? Cell Sap
TRUE OR FALSE: The Genetic info in Bacteria is held in the Nucleus FALSE The genetic information is like spaghetti, all tangled up!
What is a Plasmid? A small circular strand of DNA in a Bacterial cell
How do Bacterial cells move? Flagella/Flagellum - Whip like structures, which extend outside bacterial cell.
What is Mitosis used for? Growth Repair Asexual Reproduction
How many chromosomes do we have in a body cell? 46 (23 pairs)
What are Genes? Genes are sections of the chromosomes that code for a particular characteristic by providing a code for a combination of amino acids that make up a specific protein.
What are Gametes? Sex cells They contain half the genetic information that every other cell contains.
What happens in Mitosis? The cells replicates its chromosomes and its organelles. Then the cell splits, leaving two identical DAUGHTER cells.
What does Meiosis produce? 4 haploid non-identical gametes
What is so special about Stem Cells? Stem Cells have the ability to become a different type of cell!!!
What is the word equation for Aerobic Respiration? Glucose + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water [+ Energy]
What is the word equation for Anaerobic Respiration? Glucose --> Lactic Acid [+ Energy]
What is the energy produced by Respiration used for? Energy from respiration is used in reactions that produce different molecules. To build larger molecules from smaller ones, this process is called Anabolism.
Fill in the missing gaps: Anabolism in Plants leads to the formation of ________. This is a storage _______________, made up of __________ sub-units. Starch Carbohydrate Glucose
What is the Human equivalent of Starch? Glycogen
In plants, what do Anabolic Reactions convert nitrates, sugars and other nutrients into? Amino Acids The Amino Acids are then joined in specific sequences to make proteins
Where is Glycogen stored? In the Liver and Muscle Cells
What is the energy molecule used by cells called? ATP
How many ATP Molecules are produced per Glucose molecule in Aerobic Respiration, compared to in Anaerobic Respiration? Aerobic Respiration- 38 ATP Molecules per Glucose Molecule Anaerobic Respiration- 2 ATP Molecules per Glucose Molecule
What happens when Lactic Acid Builds up in Muscles? It causes Muscle Fatigue and Cramp
The Oxygen needed to oxidize the Lactic Acid formed after anaerobic respiration into Carbon Dioxide and Water is called what? The Oxygen Debt
What are the products of Anaerobic Respiration in Plants and Microorganisms like yeast? Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide
What are different forms/variations of a gene called? Alleles
What are the two types of allele? Dominant and Recessive
What is it called, when a characteristic is controlled by just one pair of alleles? Monohybrid inheritance
DEFINE: Genotype The combination of alleles that an individual has for a particular gene.
DEFINE: Homozygous An individual who carries two copies of the SAME allele for a particular gene. e.g. BB or bb
DEFINE: Heterozygous An individual who carries two DIFFERENT alleles for a particular gene. e.g. Bb
DEFINE: Phenotype The expression of the genotype (the characteristic shown). e.g. The HOMOZYGOUS RECESSIVE GENOTYPE of 'bb' would have a PHENOTYPE of blue eyes.
Who was Gregor Mendel? The father of modern genetics, he proposed the idea of separately inherited factors.
Why are fossils so rare? 1. Many early forms of life were soft-bodied and did not leave traces behind. 2. Fossils have been destroyed by geological activity (weathering and erosion).
Name 4 reasons why a new species might arise. (3 of these reasons are Higher-tier) 1. A result of isolation 2. Genetic Variation 3. Natural Selection 4. Speciation - The populations become so different that successful interbreeding is no longer possible
During fertilisation, the female and male gametes fuse to produce a _______. Zygote
Which combination of chromosomes determine that someone is: A Man? A Woman? Man - XY Woman - XX
Amylase: Where is it produced? What does it digest? What does it produce? Produced in the salivary glands, pancreas and small intestine. Digests starch. Produces sugars in the mouth and small intestine.
Protease: Where is it produced? What does it digest? What does it produce? It is produced in the stomach, pancreas and small intestine. Digests proteins. Produces amino acids in the stomach and small intestine.
Lipase: Where is it produced? What does it digest? What does it produce? It is produced in the pancreas and small intestine. Digests lipids (fats and oils). Produces fatty acids and glycerol in the small intestine.
Where is Bile produced? In the Liver
Where is Bile stored? In your Gall Bladder
Where is Bile released into? Into the Small Intestine
What does Bile do? Bile neutralises the acid that is added to food in your stomach.
Which two types of enzyme are found in biological detergents? Protease Lipase
Give two methods of sampling the distribution of daisies in a field. Random Sampling with Quadrats Sampling Along a Transect
List three factors that may affect the rate of photosynthesis... Temperature CO2 Concentration Light Intensity
What is the word equation for Photosynthesis? Carbon Dioxide + Water --> Glucose + Oxygen
Name 5 or more different types of cell. Root Hair Cells Ovum (egg cell) + Sperm cells Xylem White Blood Cells Palisade cells Red Blood cells Nerve Cells
What is the spreading of the particles of a gas or a substance in solution known as? Diffusion
What is a tissue? A group of cells that have a similar structure and function.
What is an Organ? Organs are made of tissues. One organ may contain several tissues.
_________ cell --> _________ tissue --> Leaf (organ) -> Plant (organism) Pallisade
Give some examples of Plant Tissues: - epidermal tissues, that cover the plant. - mesophyll, where photosynthesis takes place. - xylem and phloem that transport substances around the plant.
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Fill in the missing words: The stomach also produces ___________________ in which stomach enzymes work best. Hydrochloric acid
The glucose produced by plants in photosynthesis may be changed into... (And stored where?) Insoluble starch, and stored in the stem leaves or roots.
What do plants need, in addition to glucose, to make proteins? Nitrate ions, which are absorbed from the soil.
Describe root-hair cells... Tiny hair-like entensions that increase surface area of the cell for absorption.
Describe an ovum (egg cell)... Large cell that can carry food reserves for the developing embryo.
Describe a Xylem cell... Long, thin, hollow cell used to transport water through the stem and root.
Describe a white blood cell... Can change shape in order to engulf and destroy invading microorganisms.
Describe a sperm cell... Has a tail, which allows it to move.
Describe a palisade cell... Packed with chloroplasts for photosynthesis.
Describe a white blood cell... No nucleus, so packed full of haemoglobin to absorb oxygen.
Describe a nerve cell... Long slender axons that can carry nerve impulses.
What are protein molecules made from? Long chains of amino acids.
What do proteins act as? - Structural components of tissues such as muscles. - Hormones. - Anitbodies. - Catalysts
What are enzymes? Biological catalysts made from proteins, they increase the rate of chemical reactions.
How do digestive enzymes work? 1- They pass out of the cells into the digestive system. 2- They come into contact with food molecules. 3- They catalyse the breakdown of large food molecules into smaller molecules.
Give some examples + uses of enzymes in industry... - Protease, to 'pre-digest' protein in some baby foods. - Carbohydrases, to convert starch into sugar syrup. - Isomerase, to convert glucose syrup into fructose syrup, which is sweeter.
What is the energy released during respiration used for? - To build larger molecules from smaller ones. - To allow muscles to contract (in animals). - To maintain a steady body temperature in colder surroundings. - To build up amino acids from sugars, nitrates and other nutrients, which then combine to form proteins.