Biological molecules.

daniel murphy
Mind Map by daniel murphy, updated more than 1 year ago
daniel murphy
Created by daniel murphy almost 3 years ago
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Mind Map on Biological molecules, created by daniel murphy on 04/11/2018.

Resource summary

Biological molecules.
  1. Carbohydrates
    1. Carbohydrates are organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. In carbohydrates the basic u it is a monosaccharide. Two monosaccharide molecules combine to form a polysaccharide

      Annotations:

      • Carbohydrates are organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. In carbohydrates the basic u it is a monosaccharide. Two monosaccharide molecules combine to form a polysaccharide.
      • Enter text here...
      1. Monosaccharides
        1. Monosaccharides are a source of energy in respiration. Carbon-hydrogen and carbon-carbon bonds are broken to release energy. They are building blocks for larger molecules. Glucose for example is used to make the polysaccharide starch, glycogen and cellulose. They also intermediate in reactions and constitutes of nucleotides

          Annotations:

          • Monosaccharides are a source of energy in respiration. Carbon-hydrogen and carbon-carbon bonds are broken to release energy. They are building blocks for larger molecules. Glucose for example is used to make the polysaccharide starch, glycogen and cellulose. They also intermediate in reactions and constitutes of nucleotides
          1. Triose
            1. 3 carbon atoms
              1. Intermediates in the reactions of respiration and photosynthesis
              2. Pentose
                1. 5 carbon atoms
                2. Hexose
                  1. 6 carbon atoms
                    1. Carbon atoms form a hexagon shape
                  2. Glucose
                    1. Alpha glucose
                      1. Hydrogen atom is above carbon-1
                        1. Form polymers such as starch and cellulose
                        2. Beta glucose
                          1. Hydrogen atom is below the carbon-1
                      2. Disaccharides
                        1. Two monosaccharide units bonded together with the formation of glycosidic bond and the elimination of water. It is an example of a condensation reaction
                          1. 2 alpha glucose molecules bond to create maltose. Water is removed inbetween the C4 of one and the C1 of the other. Therefore it is called a 1,4 glycosidic bond
                          2. Polysaccharides
                            1. Many monosaccharides linked together by a condensation reaction
                              1. Starch is a storage polysaccharide
                                1. It’s monomer is alpha glucose
                                  1. It’s function is the storage of glucose
                                    1. It’s insoluble and is a compact molecule. It also carries a lot of energy is its C-H and C-C bonds
                                      1. It has 2 components. Amylose and Amylopectin
                                        1. Amylose has 1,4 linkages and is unbranched and coiled
                                          1. Amylopectin has some 1,6 linkages and therefore some branching, fits inside amylose
                                        2. Glycogen is a storage polysaccharide
                                          1. It’s monomer is alpha glucose
                                            1. It is the main storage product in animals
                                              1. It is quickly hydrolysed and insoluble
                                                1. Has alpha 1,4 and alpha 1,6 bonds but has shorter 1,4 bonds so are more branched
                                                  1. Very branched due to 1-6 linkages which makes it easy to hydrolyse which makes it easier to release glucose for respiration
                                                  2. Cellulose
                                                    1. It is a structural polysaccharide
                                                      1. It’s monomer is beta glucose
                                                        1. It gives structural support in plant cell walls
                                                          1. It is strong, rigid and inelastic
                                                            1. 1-4 links between monomers. H bongs between adjacent chains to form microfibrills
                                                              1. Alternate units rotated 180 degrees. H bonds cross link with hydrogen bonds and form microfibrils
                                                              2. Chitin
                                                                1. It is a structural polysaccharide
                                                                  1. It’s monomer is beta glucose with acetyl anime groups.
                                                                    1. It gives structural support in anthropod exoskeletons; cell wall of fungi
                                                                      1. It is strong rigid and lightweight and waterproof
                                                                        1. It is structured the same as cellulose but has amino acid group instead of an OH group.
                                                                    2. Inorganic molecules
                                                                      1. One or less carbons. Carbon doesn’t form the frame of the molecule
                                                                        1. Calcium
                                                                          1. Hardening of bones and teeth
                                                                          2. Magnesium
                                                                            1. Component of chlorophyll
                                                                            2. Iron
                                                                              1. Component of haemoglobin
                                                                              2. Phosphate
                                                                                1. Component of nucleotides and phospholipids
                                                                              3. Water
                                                                                1. I’ve less dense: Ice floats and forms an insulating layer. Organisms below can survive. Form a lattice
                                                                                  1. High surface tension: Cohesion ( hydrogen bonds) of water molecules to each other. Some organisms can live on the surface of the water
                                                                                    1. Strong cohesive and tensile properties: Tall columns of water can be drawn up the xylem vessels in a tall tree. Cohesion tension theory
                                                                                      1. Colourless: Light passes through easily. Enables aquatic plants to photosynthesise effectively
                                                                                        1. Liquid at room temperature: Universal solvent, polar charged particle dissolved in it. Transport and reaction medium. E.g. blood and xylem
                                                                                          1. High latent heat of vaporisation: Lots of energy to change to gas. Important in cooling mechanisms which often use evaporation. E.g sweating
                                                                                            1. High specific heat capacity: Can absorb a lot of energy for a small temp rise. Heat up slowly, cool down slowly. Prevents large fluctuations in water temperature. Aquatic habitats are stable
                                                                                            2. Hydrolysis is the breaking down of large molecules into smaller molecules, by the addition of a molecule of water
                                                                                              1. Condensation is when two molecules combine to form a more complex molecule, with the elimination of water
                                                                                                1. Lipids
                                                                                                  1. Organic molecules. There are two sub units, glycerol and fatty acids. They contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen.
                                                                                                    1. Glycerol
                                                                                                      1. Consists of 3 carbon atoms, 5 hydrogen atoms and 3 water molecules
                                                                                                      2. In proportion the to the carbon and hydrogen they contain much less oxygen. They are non polar compounds and are insoluble in water, but dissolve in organic solvents, such as propanone and alcohols
                                                                                                        1. Fatty acids
                                                                                                          1. Consists of a long hydrocarbon chain and have a carboxylic group at one end (COOH). There are two types: saturated and unsaturated
                                                                                                            1. Saturated fatty acids
                                                                                                              1. Single bong between the carbon atoms
                                                                                                                1. Solid at room temperature
                                                                                                                  1. Found in animal tissue
                                                                                                                    1. E.g butter
                                                                                                                      1. Can cause a build up in LDL’s resulting in atheronas (restricting blood flow)
                                                                                                                        1. LDL = low density lipoprotein. “Bad” cholesteral
                                                                                                                      2. Unsaturated fatty acids
                                                                                                                        1. Some double bonds between carbon atoms.
                                                                                                                          1. Forms a kink in the chain
                                                                                                                          2. Liquid at room temperature - called oils
                                                                                                                            1. E.g sunflower oils
                                                                                                                              1. Causes the body to make HDL’s which carry harmful fats to the liver to be broken down.
                                                                                                                                1. HDL = high density lipoproteins. “Good” cholesteral
                                                                                                                                  1. The higher the ratio of HDL:LDL in a persons blood the lower the risk of cardiovascular disease
                                                                                                                            2. Triglycerides
                                                                                                                              1. Condensation reaction between 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids. They form an estar linkage/bond (COCO). 3 water molecules released when reaction takes place
                                                                                                                                1. Energy storage: -one gram of fat yields approximately twice as much energy as one gram of carbohydrates
                                                                                                                                  1. Protection: Protection of delicate organs from knocks. E.g kidney. Neurons are covered in a fatty sheath to protect them.
                                                                                                                                    1. They produce a lot of metabolic water when oxidised: Important to camels/desert organisms
                                                                                                                                      1. Thermal insulator: Triglycerides are stored under the skin
                                                                                                                                        1. Electrical insulator: -Schwann cells make up axon of a neuron
                                                                                                                                        2. Phospholipids
                                                                                                                                          1. Consists of 2 fatty acid chains, 1 glycerol, 1 phosphate group
                                                                                                                                            1. Found in membranes
                                                                                                                                              1. 2 fatty acids plus phosphate group
                                                                                                                                                1. Phosphate head = polar/hydrophilic
                                                                                                                                                  1. Fatty acid tails = non-polar /hydrophobic
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