Mechanisms of Hormone Action

Daniel Elandix G
Mind Map by , created about 6 years ago

Physiology 1B (Glands) Mind Map on Mechanisms of Hormone Action, created by Daniel Elandix G on 08/03/2013.

59
0
0
Tags
Daniel Elandix G
Created by Daniel Elandix G about 6 years ago
Biopsychology - the Nervous System
Jenny Wright
Thyroid + Parathyroid Flash Cards
Daniel Elandix G
Simple Feedback Loops and Glands
Daniel Elandix G
MICROSOFT ACTIVE DIRECTORY MIDTERM
maxwell3254
Functionalist Theory of Crime
A M
Hypothalamus and Pituitary
Daniel Elandix G
Pancreas and Secondary Glands
Daniel Elandix G
Hormones of Pregnancy
Daniel Elandix G
Lexture Exam 1: Chapter 13: The Endocrine System
Kyla S
Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
Daniel Elandix G
Mechanisms of Hormone Action
1 Endocrine Glands
1.1 Primary Endocrine Glands

Annotations:

  • Primary function is to secrete hormones into the blood stream. The glands are: Pineal, (regulate circardian rhythm) Hypothalamus: Feel good (balance) Thyroid/Parathyroid: Regulate growth (can be able to feel or palpate) Thymus glands: T-cells activation Adrenal Glands: Adrenaline (one on each kidney) Pancreas: Secrete glucagon and insulin Ovaries + Testis: Oestrogen and Testosterone
1.2 Secondary Endocrine Glands

Annotations:

  • Secondary endocrine glands are mostly organs that have primary functions but the secondary function are to secrete hormones. Examples are: Heart Stomach Liver Kidneys  Intestines (Control diet) Skin: Vitamin D
1.2.1 GI Tract

Annotations:

  • Stomach produces gastrin Small intestines produces CCK and GIP (cholecytokinin and glucose-depedent insulintropic peptide).
1.3 Function

Annotations:

  • Integration and control Control and coordinate function of cells and organs over the body for example metabolism. Control and maintain homeostasis and to maintain and regulate baseline activity. Endocrine system however tends to be quite slower and act over a longer time. An exception is adrenaline.
1.4 Features

Annotations:

  • Arranged in cords or groupling of cells. Organ has good vasculature (loads of capillaries) with fenestrated features. Hormones circulate throughout the whole body.
1.5 Hormones

Annotations:

  • Chemical messenger Can be synthesized and released by specialized organs or cells. Secreted in blood streams in small amounts and acts at target tissues via specific receptors.
1.5.1 Chemical Classifications
1.5.1.1 Composition

Annotations:

  • Amines: Derived from amino acid (tyrosine), examples are adrenaline, noradrenaline and hormones secrete from thyroid. Peptides/Proteins: Synthesized by mRNA. Steroids: Synthesized from cholesterol.
1.5.1.2 Solubility

Annotations:

  • Hydrophilic: Most of the hormones, catecholamines, amines and peptides or proteins. Hydrophobic: Steroid hormones and thyroid.
1.5.1.2.1 Hydrophobic

Annotations:

  • Unable to be stored inside cells Synthesized on demand Released by diffusion Slow response Metabolised slowly, long acting
1.5.1.2.1.1 Transport

Annotations:

  • Secreted by simple diffusion across cell membrane. Bound to carrier protein (le chatelier's) matter of equilibrium. Free hormones are only able to be bound
1.5.1.2.2 Hydrophilic

Annotations:

  • Easily stored inside side cells. Synthesised and stored beforehand RElease by exocytosis Fast response Metabolize fast, short acting
1.5.1.2.2.1 Transport

Annotations:

  • Secreted by exocytosis Dissolved in plasma in blood Transported in dissolved form
1.5.1.3 Actions

Annotations:

  • Autocrine: Chemical signals send to itself. More of self regulation to act on the population in the cell itself. Paracrine: Chemical acts on neighbouring cells Endocrine: Released into blood. Act to target cells at specific receptors. Neurohormones: Similar action to  neurotransmitter
1.5.2 Regulation
1.5.2.1 Hierarchical Control
1.5.2.2 Simple feedback loops
1.5.3 Triggers/Stimuli

Annotations:

  • Hormonal Stimuli: Release due to another hormone Humoral: Changes within the environment of the body Neuronal: Response to emotion or physical stress or cognitive
1.6 Receptors

Annotations:

  • Specific. Receptors can be in the cell or on the surface
1.6.1 Hydrophilic Hormones

Annotations:

  • Uses G-protein coupled receptors. Surface membrane receptors
1.6.2 Hydrophobic Hormones

Annotations:

  • Lipid based. Binds to HRE to control gene expression Binds to the intracellular receptors to control gene expression.

Media attachments