Patristic Period (c100 to c700)


Bacharel Theology Mind Map on Patristic Period (c100 to c700), created by radnorgardens on 08/18/2013.
Mind Map by radnorgardens, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by radnorgardens over 10 years ago

Resource summary

Patristic Period (c100 to c700)
  1. Three regions of theological development
    1. 1. City of Alexandria (modern day Egypt)
      1. Associated with Platonic tradition
        1. Influenced Christology & Biblical Interpretation
          1. Greek speaking
          2. 2. City of Antioch and Cappadocian region (modern day Turkey)
            1. Influenced doctrine of trinity
              1. Paul's missionary journey (detailed in Acts)
                1. 'Cappadocian' fathers
                  1. Basil the Great (c.330-379)
                    1. Bishop of Caesarea, older brother of Gregory of Nyssa
                    2. Gregory of Nyssa (c.330-c.395)
                      1. Bishop of Nyssa
                      2. Gregory of Nazianzus (329-389)
                        1. Later bishop of Constantinople
                      3. Greek speaking
                      4. 3. City of Carthage and Western north Africa (modern day Algeria)
                        1. Major writers
                          1. Cyprian of Carthage (d.258)
                            1. Previously a prominent lawyer and rhetorician
                              1. Converted 246, made bishop 248
                                1. Martyred during the Decian persuction
                                  1. Wrote 'Unity of the Catholic Church'
                                  2. (Aurelius) Augustine of Hippo (354-430)
                                    1. Made Christian theology an academic discipline
                                      1. Known as the second founder of Christianity (Jerome)
                                        1. Wrote 'On the City of God'
                                          1. Key contributions
                                            1. Doctrine of the Trinity
                                              1. Doctrine of Grace
                                                1. Salvation is through grace alone - not through merit of good works (Pelagius)
                                                2. Doctrine of the Church (esslesiology)
                                                  1. Donatists believed the Church should not admit sinners
                                                    1. Those who yielded under Diocletian (Rome emperor), but subsequently wanted to come back to the church under Constantine
                                              2. Tertullian (c.160-c.225)
                                                1. Defended the unity of the OT & NT against Marcion
                                                  1. Led to the Doctrine of Trinity
                                                  2. Used the sufficiency of Scripture to defend the faith
                                                    1. Especially against secular philosophies
                                                2. A political rival to Rome
                                                3. Others
                                                  1. Rome
                                                    1. Constantinople
                                                      1. Milan
                                                        1. Jerusalem
                                                      2. Theological agenda
                                                        1. Apologetics
                                                          1. 'A reasoned defense and justification of the Christian faith'
                                                            1. Key figures
                                                              1. Justin Martyr (c.100-c.165)
                                                                1. Related the gospel to the outlook of Greek philosophy
                                                                  1. Stated OT and NT had equal authority
                                                                  2. Irenaeus of Lyons (c.130-c.200)
                                                                    1. Defended Christian orthodoxy against Gnosticism
                                                                      1. Wrote 'Adversus haereses - defense of Christian understanding of salvation'
                                                                      2. Origen (c.185-c.254)
                                                                        1. Stated surface meaning to be distinguished from deeper spiritual meaning
                                                                          1. Believed Christ was less divine than the Father - leads to Arianism
                                                                            1. Apocatastasis - every creature will be saved
                                                                            2. Athanasius (c.293-373)
                                                                              1. Defended the Incarnation against Arian
                                                                                1. If Christ was not fully God
                                                                                  1. God can't save humanity, as no creature could redeem another creature
                                                                                    1. The Church would be guilty of idolatry, as they would have been worshipping a human construction
                                                                                    2. Circulated his 39th Festal Letter - identifying the 27 canonical books of the NT
                                                                                  2. Especially important during persecution
                                                                                  3. The relationship between Christianity and Judaism
                                                                                    1. Paul's letters
                                                                                      1. The view of the Hebrew Bible
                                                                                      2. Doctrines of the Trinity and Christology
                                                                                        1. Developed out of the need to defend the faith (Apologetics)
                                                                                      3. Constantine converted to Christianity and became Roman emperor (306-337)
                                                                                        1. Doctrinal debates became a matter of both political and theological importance
                                                                                          1. Constantine wanted a united (catholic) church
                                                                                          2. Canon
                                                                                            1. Derives from Greek word - Kanon
                                                                                              1. Means 'a rule' or 'a fixed point of reference'
                                                                                              2. Completed at the beginning of the 5th century
                                                                                              3. Interpretation
                                                                                                1. Tradition made sure that Scripture was interpreted correctly
                                                                                                  1. Secret revelation was dismissed as 'Gnostic'
                                                                                                  2. Creeds
                                                                                                    1. Credo - 'I believe'
                                                                                                      1. Apostles' creed
                                                                                                        1. Finalised in the 8th Century
                                                                                                          1. Eastern version does not included 'descended into hell' or 'the communion of saints'
                                                                                                          2. Nicene creed
                                                                                                            1. A longer version
                                                                                                              1. Condemned Arian views
                                                                                                            2. Councils
                                                                                                              1. Nicea (325)
                                                                                                                1. Establishing the identify of Christ
                                                                                                                  1. Homoousios - 'one in being / 'of one substance'
                                                                                                                  2. First ecumenical council
                                                                                                                    1. Settled Arian controversy
                                                                                                                    2. Chalcedon (451)
                                                                                                                      1. Confirmed decisions of Nicea
                                                                                                                      2. Carthage (418)
                                                                                                                        1. Approved of Augustine's view of grace
                                                                                                                          1. Rejected Pelagius 'merit by works'
                                                                                                                      3. Apollinarian debate
                                                                                                                        1. Apollinarius of Laodicea (c.310-c.390)
                                                                                                                          1. An opponent of Arius
                                                                                                                            1. Believed Christ could not be fully human
                                                                                                                              1. Human spirit replaced by divine logos
                                                                                                                                1. Gregory of Nazianzus stated if Christ was not fully human, then he can not fully redeem humans
                                                                                                                              2. Introduction
                                                                                                                                1. By c100 Christianity was established throughout the mediterranean world and had a significant presence in Rome
                                                                                                                                  1. Tensions between Rome and Constantinople
                                                                                                                                    1. Foreshadow to the division of west and east
                                                                                                                                    2. Definitive period in the development of Christian doctrine
                                                                                                                                      1. Refers to the church fathers and the period of ideas
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