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Patristic Period (c100 to c700)
Bacharel Theology Mind Map on Patristic Period (c100 to c700), created by radnorgardens on 08/18/2013.
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Patristic Period (c100 to c700)
Three regions of theological development
1. City of Alexandria (modern day Egypt)
Associated with Platonic tradition
Influenced Christology & Biblical Interpretation
2. City of Antioch and Cappadocian region (modern day Turkey)
Influenced doctrine of trinity
Paul's missionary journey (detailed in Acts)
Basil the Great (c.330-379)
Bishop of Caesarea, older brother of Gregory of Nyssa
Gregory of Nyssa (c.330-c.395)
Bishop of Nyssa
Gregory of Nazianzus (329-389)
Later bishop of Constantinople
3. City of Carthage and Western north Africa (modern day Algeria)
Cyprian of Carthage (d.258)
Previously a prominent lawyer and rhetorician
Converted 246, made bishop 248
Martyred during the Decian persuction
Wrote 'Unity of the Catholic Church'
(Aurelius) Augustine of Hippo (354-430)
Made Christian theology an academic discipline
Known as the second founder of Christianity (Jerome)
Wrote 'On the City of God'
Doctrine of the Trinity
Doctrine of Grace
Salvation is through grace alone - not through merit of good works (Pelagius)
Doctrine of the Church (esslesiology)
Donatists believed the Church should not admit sinners
Those who yielded under Diocletian (Rome emperor), but subsequently wanted to come back to the church under Constantine
Defended the unity of the OT & NT against Marcion
Led to the Doctrine of Trinity
Used the sufficiency of Scripture to defend the faith
Especially against secular philosophies
A political rival to Rome
'A reasoned defense and justification of the Christian faith'
Justin Martyr (c.100-c.165)
Related the gospel to the outlook of Greek philosophy
Stated OT and NT had equal authority
Irenaeus of Lyons (c.130-c.200)
Defended Christian orthodoxy against Gnosticism
Wrote 'Adversus haereses - defense of Christian understanding of salvation'
Stated surface meaning to be distinguished from deeper spiritual meaning
Believed Christ was less divine than the Father - leads to Arianism
Apocatastasis - every creature will be saved
Defended the Incarnation against Arian
If Christ was not fully God
God can't save humanity, as no creature could redeem another creature
The Church would be guilty of idolatry, as they would have been worshipping a human construction
Circulated his 39th Festal Letter - identifying the 27 canonical books of the NT
Especially important during persecution
The relationship between Christianity and Judaism
The view of the Hebrew Bible
Doctrines of the Trinity and Christology
Developed out of the need to defend the faith (Apologetics)
Constantine converted to Christianity and became Roman emperor (306-337)
Doctrinal debates became a matter of both political and theological importance
Constantine wanted a united (catholic) church
Derives from Greek word - Kanon
Means 'a rule' or 'a fixed point of reference'
Completed at the beginning of the 5th century
Tradition made sure that Scripture was interpreted correctly
Secret revelation was dismissed as 'Gnostic'
Credo - 'I believe'
Finalised in the 8th Century
Eastern version does not included 'descended into hell' or 'the communion of saints'
A longer version
Condemned Arian views
Establishing the identify of Christ
Homoousios - 'one in being / 'of one substance'
First ecumenical council
Settled Arian controversy
Confirmed decisions of Nicea
Approved of Augustine's view of grace
Rejected Pelagius 'merit by works'
Apollinarius of Laodicea (c.310-c.390)
An opponent of Arius
Believed Christ could not be fully human
Human spirit replaced by divine logos
Gregory of Nazianzus stated if Christ was not fully human, then he can not fully redeem humans
By c100 Christianity was established throughout the mediterranean world and had a significant presence in Rome
Tensions between Rome and Constantinople
Foreshadow to the division of west and east
Definitive period in the development of Christian doctrine
Refers to the church fathers and the period of ideas
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