Bonding and Structure

Kajal Patel
Mind Map by Kajal Patel, updated more than 1 year ago
Kajal Patel
Created by Kajal Patel over 6 years ago
19
3

Description

GCSE AS Chemistry Mind Map on Bonding and Structure, created by Kajal Patel on 11/26/2014.

Resource summary

Bonding and Structure
  1. Types of Bonds
    1. Covalent Bonds
      1. It is a shared pair of electrons
      2. Ionic Bonds
        1. It is the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
        2. Metallic Bonds
          1. It is electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons
        3. Types of Structures
          1. Giant Metallic Lattice
            1. It is a 3D structure of positive ions and delocalised electrons bonded together by strong metallic bonds.
              1. High melting point
                1. Lots of energy is needed to break the strong metallic bonds between delocalised electrons and positive ions
                2. Conduct electricity
                  1. The delocalised electrons are mobile i.e. free to move and carry current.
                  2. Malleable and Ductile
                    1. As the electrons in the metallic lattice are free to move, the structure has a degree to give, which allows layers of atoms to slide past each other.
                3. Giant Ionic Lattice
                  1. It is a 3D structure of oppositely charged ions bonded together by strong ionic bonds
                    1. High Melting Point
                      1. Lots of energy is needed to break stonng electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.
                      2. Electrical conductivity
                        1. Does not conduct when solid
                          1. Ions in solids have fixed position and hence are not mobile i.e. free to move
                          2. Conduct when molten or dissolved
                            1. The ions are mobile and free to move to carry current
                          3. Soluble in polar solvents
                            1. Water molecules attract Na+ and Cl- ions in ionic lattice. Na+ attracts δ- charges on oxygen atoms of the water molecule and Cl- attracts δ+ charges on hydrogen atoms of the water molecules. The ionic lattice breaks down as water molecules surround the ions and dissolve it.
                        2. Covalent Structures
                          1. Giant Covalent Structure
                            1. It is a 3D structure of atoms bonded together by strong covalent bonds.
                              1. High Melting Point
                                1. Lots of energy is needed to break the strong covalent bonds which are broken when melting gian colvalent lattice
                                2. Does not conduct electricity
                                  1. There are no charged particles to carry current
                                  2. Insoluble
                                    1. The covalent bonds are too strong to be broken by wither polar or non-polar solvents
                                3. Simple molecule
                                  1. It is a 3D structure of molecules bonded together by weak intermolecular forces.
                                    1. Low Melting Point
                                      1. Less energy is needed to break the weak intermolecular forces between molecules.
                                        1. Three types of weak intermolecular forces
                                          1. Van der Waals' Forces
                                            1. It is the weak attractive forces between induces dipoles of neighbouring molecules
                                            2. Permanent DIpole-Dipole attraction
                                              1. It is the weak attractive forces between permanent dipoles of neighbouring molecules
                                              2. Hydrogen bonding
                                                1. It is the strong dipole-dipole attraction between an electron-deficient hydrogen atom on one molecule and the lone pair of electrons on a highly electronegative atom on a different molecule. (O/N/F)
                                          2. Do not conduct electricity
                                            1. No charged particles free to move and carry current
                                            2. Soluble in non-polar solvent
                                              1. Weak Van Der Waal's forces arise between the non-polar covalent molecules and non-polar solvent molecules. this weakens the structure and causes it to break down.
                                      2. COVALENT BOND > METALLIC BOND > INTERMOLECULAR FORCES
                                        Show full summary Hide full summary

                                        Similar

                                        AS-Level Chemistry: Unit 1:The Atom
                                        Daena Targaryen
                                        The Periodic Table
                                        Catherine Kidd
                                        Basic concepts of organic chemistry
                                        sabah g
                                        Chemistry As Unit 2 FLASHCARDS
                                        suzan
                                        Halogenalkanes
                                        Eleanor H
                                        CHEM 1
                                        Lucy Denver
                                        OCR A AS Chemistry
                                        Sarah McLean
                                        What's in a Medicine?
                                        Tamsyn Dawson
                                        Trends in the periodic table
                                        Holly Bamford
                                        OCR B A Level Chemistry Specimen Papers Questions
                                        Alex Lyes