Geography: Urban Issues and Challenges

Blerta Morina
Mind Map by Blerta Morina, updated more than 1 year ago
Blerta Morina
Created by Blerta Morina over 1 year ago
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GCSE Geography Mind Map on Geography: Urban Issues and Challenges, created by Blerta Morina on 03/05/2019.

Resource summary

Geography: Urban Issues and Challenges
1 Urbanisation
1.1 The growth in the proportion of a country's population living in urban areas. More than 50% of the world's population live in urban areas.
1.2 HICs
1.2.1 Urbanisation happened earlier. Most of population already live in urban areas.
1.2.2 Slow rates of urban growth. People desiring a better quality of life are moving to rural areas.
1.3 LICs
1.3.1 A few of the population live in urban areas.. Fastest rates of urbanisation are in LICs
1.4 NEEs
1.4.1 Percentage of population living in urban areas varies. Some are experiencing raid urban growth.
1.5 Causes
1.5.1 Rural-Urban Migration
1.5.1.1 The movement of people from the countryside to cities.
1.5.1.2 Push Factors
1.5.1.2.1 Natural disasters
1.5.1.2.2 Mechanisation of agricultural equipment - farms require fewer workers
1.5.1.2.3 Desertification can make land unproductive.
1.5.1.2.4 Conflict/War
1.5.1.3 Pull Factors
1.5.1.3.1 More jobs in urban areas that are often paid.
1.5.1.3.2 Access to better healthcare and education
1.5.1.3.3 Join other family members
1.5.1.3.4 Better quality of life
1.5.2 Natural Increase
1.5.2.1 Birth rate is higher than death rate
1.6 High rates leads to growth of megacities.
2 Urban Growth - Opportunities and Challenges
2.1 Social Opportunites
2.1.1 Better access to services (healthcare and education)
2.1.2 Better access to resources (water supply)
2.2 Economic Opportunites
2.2.1 Increases economic development
2.2.2 More jobs and better wages than in rural areas
2.2.3 Industries sell the goods they make on the international market. Manufactured goods make more profit so industrialised countries get wealthier.
2.3 Social and Economic Challenges
2.3.1 Many people who move to the city form rural areas end up in squatter settlements (slums) that are built illegally, by people who can't afford housing.
2.3.2 Badly built and overcrowded
2.3.3 Unclean conditions and lack of access to medical services
2.3.4 High levels of unemployment and crime.
2.4 Environmental Challenges
2.4.1 Rubbish isn't collected and end up in big heaps
2.4.2 Sewage and toxic chemicals can get into rivers
2.4.3 Air pollution comes from burning fuel and vehicle exhaust fumes.
3 NEE: Mumbai, India
3.1 Slum Housing
3.1.1 Over 1million people live there
3.1.2 Shelters are overcrowded and made of whatever is available
3.1.3 How are they going to improve it?
3.1.3.1 To sell the land to property developers to build better homes for the current residents
3.2 Water Pollution
3.2.1 Mithi River is polluted by the airports using it to dump oil and more
3.2.2 How are they going to improve it?
3.2.2.1 Public toilets built to reduce raw stewage
3.3 Air Pollution
3.3.1 Air is polluted by exhaust gases, causing health issues/illnesses
3.3.2 How are they going to improve it?
3.3.2.1 City banned diesel use and new metro system encourages uses of public transport
4 Sustainable Urban Living
4.1 Water Conservation Schemes
4.1.1 Only as much water should be taken from the environment as can be naturally replaced.
4.1.2 Collecting rainwater for gardens or flushing toilets
4.1.3 Encouraging people to use less water
4.1.4 Installing toilets that use less water to flush
4.2 Creating Green Spaces
4.2.1 They provide naturally cooler areas
4.2.2 Make people feel happier by providing a break from the noise of the city
4.2.3 Reduce the risk of flooding by reducing surface runoff from rainfall
4.3 Waste Recycling
4.3.1 Websites for items that are offered for free so they can be used by others
4.3.2 Less waste is produced, which reduces the amount of that goes to landfill. It is unsustainable as it wastes resources that could be recycled and eventually there'll be nowhere left to bury the waste.
4.3.3 Collection of household recycling boxes
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