1 Biome: A region with similar biotic
and abiotic components. (Example: A
1.1 Ecosystem: A part of a biome where abiotic
components interact with biotic components
(Example: A pond contains fish and water, both
1.1.1 Biotic: A living organisim
(Example: Birds, bears, and
126.96.36.199 Individual: One organism
188.8.131.52.1 Limiting factors: A resource or
environmental condition limiting the
growth or population of an
184.108.40.206.1.1 Natural Selection: Where organisms are better
adapted to their environment, through environmental
pressure, reproduction, or variation. (Example: The
Snowy Grey Owl structurally adapted to camoflauge
the snowy environment that it lived in)
220.127.116.11.1.2 The biggest limiting factors is . . .
18.104.22.168.1.3 Limiting factors affect
22.214.171.124.1.4 Limiting factors affect populations
126.96.36.199.2 Producer: A plant that can produce
its own nutrients
188.8.131.52.2.1 Consumer: A consumer is an organism
that eats other organisms (usually
producers). (Example: Wolves)
184.108.40.206.2.1.1 Decomposer: A decomposer converts
dead organic matter into useable
nutrients available to other organisms.
(Example bacteria and fungi)
220.127.116.11.2.1.2 A consumer can also be a food
source for another organism,
such as . . .
18.104.22.168.2.2 How do producers create their own
food? With . . .
22.214.171.124.2.2.1 Photosynthesis: Carbon dioxide (CO2)
enters the leaves of plants and reacts
to the water with sunlight to produce
carbohydrates and oxygen. The
equation for photosynthesis is: Energy
-> 6C02 + C6H12O6+ 602 (glucose)
126.96.36.199 Population: All the members
of a particular species within
an ecosystem (Example; The
188.8.131.52.1 Keystone species: A species that can greatly affect
population numbers and the health of an ecosystem.
(Example: Salmon serve as a food source for eagles,
wolves, and bears, as well as helping provide nutrients to
the soil and trees with their dead carcass).
184.108.40.206.1.3 Another vital part of an ecosystem is . . .
220.127.116.11.1.4 A keystone species can
affect a community in a
18.104.22.168.2 Pioneer Species: The first species to arrive to an area
originally devoid of plant and land. (Example: Simple
plants as algae, moss, and lichen can easily grow in
different environments, such as sand).
22.214.171.124.2.1 Just like primary succession,
pioneer species were the first
to arrive in an area
126.96.36.199 Community: All the
populations that interact in a
specific area or ecosystem
188.8.131.52.1 Competiton: A harmful interaction between two or
more organisms fighting for the same resource. (For
example, two organisms may fight for food). This is also a symbiotic relationship.
184.108.40.206.2 Symbiotic relationships: An
interaction between two or
220.127.116.11.2.1 Mutualism: A symbiotic relationship where both
organisms benefit each other. (Example: The oxpecker
gets flies and food, while the zebra is kept clean from
18.104.22.168.2.2 Parasitism: A symbiotic relationship where one
organism benefits, and the other is harmed.
(Example: A tapeworm living in a host. The tapeworm
gains, eating nutrients - while the host is harmed.)
22.214.171.124.2.3 Commensalism: A symbiotic relationship where one
organism benefits and the other is neither helped or
harmed. (Example: Clownfish live in the sea
anemones, protecting them from predators)
126.96.36.199.2.5 A Competition is also a harmful
relationship between two or more
188.8.131.52.2.5.1 Similar to parasitism
184.108.40.206.3 Energy flow: The flow of energy from
one organism to another
220.127.116.11.3.1 Energy Pyramid: A graphical model of
energy flow in a community
18.104.22.168.3.1.1 Energy is transferred
from one individual to
22.214.171.124.3.1.2 Cellular Respiration: The process
where both plants and animals
release CO2 back into the
atmosphere by converting carbs and
oxygen into C02 and H20
126.96.36.199.3.2 Energy is
188.8.131.52.4 In a community,
there are always . . .
1.1.2 Abiotic: A non living component
(Example: Weather, temperature,
184.108.40.206 Bio accumulation: The gradual buildup of organic and
synthetic chemicals in living organisms. (Example: PCBs can
harm organisms if consumed over a period of time by
causing cancer, etc)
220.127.116.11 Bio magnification: The process where organic and
synthetic chemicals build up more and more as each
trophic level increases. (Example: If DDT is consumed by
each organism in a food chain, the tertiary consumer in a
food chain will be consuming the most DDT)
18.104.22.168.1 Bio remediation: The use of (micro)organisms to break
down chemical pollutants to reverse or lessen
environmental damage. (Example: Alfalfa is used to help
absorb hazardous wastes in soil)
22.214.171.124.2 In order to fix this there is . . .
1.1.3 Primary Succession: Takes place in an area
originally void of life and sparse in nutrients. Over a
period of time, organisms will increase the
biodiversity. (Example: Surtsey Island gradually grew
plant life and animal life in the 1960s).
126.96.36.199 Secondary Succession: The re-construction of life
after a disturbance to an area that already had
existing living organisms (Example: A forest
re-growing after an intense forest fire)
188.8.131.52.1 Climax Community: A climax community is a
community already matured, continually changing
over time. (Example, boreal forest, temperate
rainforest, or grassland)
184.108.40.206.1.1 A climax community =
220.127.116.11.2 Once all of this has been completed, you end up with a climax community . . .
18.104.22.168 The first step to growing an ecosystem is . . .
22.214.171.124 After primary succession, secondary succession occurs . . .
1.1.4 Food web: A model of feeding
relationships within an ecosystem
formed in interconnected food chains
126.96.36.199 Trophic levels: A trophic level shows
how energy is passed throughout a
food chain + web.
188.8.131.52.2 Similar to . . .
184.108.40.206 Food webs contain
biotic factors . . .
1.2 Main part of a biome is . . .
2 Nutrient cycles: The way nutrients are cycled in the
biosphere and the continuous exchange of nutrients in and
out of stores
2.1 Stores: Nutrients accumulated for short or longer periods of
time in Earth's oceans, atmosphere, and land masses.
(Example: Carbon is stored in the deep ocean)
2.1.1 Short term: Top layers of the ocean,
coal deposits, and fossil fuels
2.1.2 Long term:Marine sediments, the
deep ocean, and sedimentary rook
2.3 Both biomagnificaion and
nutrients are cycled
throughout trophic levels
2.4 Carbon cycle: The carbon cycle is essential to life, and is cycled and
stored in the ecosystem in many different ways. Animals and plants
contribute to carbon.
2.4.1 Producers (plants) and consumers (animals)
contribute to carbon in the atmosphere
220.127.116.11.2 Carbon is also cycled
through ecosystems with
18.104.22.168.2.2 And cellular
3 Biosphere: The thin layer of water, land, or
air where all living things on Earth exist