ECOLOGY 10 | CONCEPT MAP

Irvine
Mind Map by Irvine, updated more than 1 year ago
Irvine
Created by Irvine over 5 years ago
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Mind Map on ECOLOGY 10 | CONCEPT MAP, created by Irvine on 12/02/2014.
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ECOLOGY 10 | CONCEPT MAP
1 Biome: A region with similar biotic and abiotic components. (Example: A tundra biome)
1.1 Ecosystem: A part of a biome where abiotic components interact with biotic components (Example: A pond contains fish and water, both interacting together)
1.1.1 Biotic: A living organisim (Example: Birds, bears, and fungi)
1.1.1.1 Individual: One organism
1.1.1.1.1 Limiting factors: A resource or environmental condition limiting the growth or population of an organism(s).
1.1.1.1.1.1 Natural Selection: Where organisms are better adapted to their environment, through environmental pressure, reproduction, or variation. (Example: The Snowy Grey Owl structurally adapted to camoflauge the snowy environment that it lived in)
1.1.1.1.1.2 The biggest limiting factors is . . .
1.1.1.1.1.3 Limiting factors affect individuals
1.1.1.1.1.4 Limiting factors affect populations
1.1.1.1.2 Producer: A plant that can produce its own nutrients
1.1.1.1.2.1 Consumer: A consumer is an organism that eats other organisms (usually producers). (Example: Wolves)
1.1.1.1.2.1.1 Decomposer: A decomposer converts dead organic matter into useable nutrients available to other organisms. (Example bacteria and fungi)
1.1.1.1.2.1.2 A consumer can also be a food source for another organism, such as . . .
1.1.1.1.2.2 How do producers create their own food? With . . .
1.1.1.1.2.2.1 Photosynthesis: Carbon dioxide (CO2) enters the leaves of plants and reacts to the water with sunlight to produce carbohydrates and oxygen. The equation for photosynthesis is: Energy -> 6C02 + C6H12O6+ 602 (glucose)
1.1.1.2 Population: All the members of a particular species within an ecosystem (Example; The frog population)
1.1.1.2.1 Keystone species: A species that can greatly affect population numbers and the health of an ecosystem. (Example: Salmon serve as a food source for eagles, wolves, and bears, as well as helping provide nutrients to the soil and trees with their dead carcass).
1.1.1.2.1.1
1.1.1.2.1.2
1.1.1.2.1.3 Another vital part of an ecosystem is . . .
1.1.1.2.1.4 A keystone species can affect a community in a large way
1.1.1.2.2 Pioneer Species: The first species to arrive to an area originally devoid of plant and land. (Example: Simple plants as algae, moss, and lichen can easily grow in different environments, such as sand).
1.1.1.2.2.1 Just like primary succession, pioneer species were the first to arrive in an area
1.1.1.2.2.1.1
1.1.1.2.2.1.1.1
1.1.1.2.2.1.1.1.1
1.1.1.3 Community: All the populations that interact in a specific area or ecosystem
1.1.1.3.1 Competiton: A harmful interaction between two or more organisms fighting for the same resource. (For example, two organisms may fight for food). This is also a symbiotic relationship.
1.1.1.3.2 Symbiotic relationships: An interaction between two or more organisms
1.1.1.3.2.1 Mutualism: A symbiotic relationship where both organisms benefit each other. (Example: The oxpecker gets flies and food, while the zebra is kept clean from the flies)
1.1.1.3.2.2 Parasitism: A symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits, and the other is harmed. (Example: A tapeworm living in a host. The tapeworm gains, eating nutrients - while the host is harmed.)
1.1.1.3.2.3 Commensalism: A symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits and the other is neither helped or harmed. (Example: Clownfish live in the sea anemones, protecting them from predators)
1.1.1.3.2.4
1.1.1.3.2.5 A Competition is also a harmful relationship between two or more organisms.
1.1.1.3.2.5.1 Similar to parasitism
1.1.1.3.2.5.1.1
1.1.1.3.3 Energy flow: The flow of energy from one organism to another
1.1.1.3.3.1 Energy Pyramid: A graphical model of energy flow in a community
1.1.1.3.3.1.1 Energy is transferred from one individual to another
1.1.1.3.3.1.1.1
1.1.1.3.3.1.2 Cellular Respiration: The process where both plants and animals release CO2 back into the atmosphere by converting carbs and oxygen into C02 and H20
1.1.1.3.3.2 Energy is transferred from producers to consumers
1.1.1.3.4 In a community, there are always . . .
1.1.2 Abiotic: A non living component (Example: Weather, temperature, and climate)
1.1.2.1 Bio accumulation: The gradual buildup of organic and synthetic chemicals in living organisms. (Example: PCBs can harm organisms if consumed over a period of time by causing cancer, etc)
1.1.2.2 Bio magnification: The process where organic and synthetic chemicals build up more and more as each trophic level increases. (Example: If DDT is consumed by each organism in a food chain, the tertiary consumer in a food chain will be consuming the most DDT)
1.1.2.2.1 Bio remediation: The use of (micro)organisms to break down chemical pollutants to reverse or lessen environmental damage. (Example: Alfalfa is used to help absorb hazardous wastes in soil)
1.1.2.2.2 In order to fix this there is . . .
1.1.3 Primary Succession: Takes place in an area originally void of life and sparse in nutrients. Over a period of time, organisms will increase the biodiversity. (Example: Surtsey Island gradually grew plant life and animal life in the 1960s).
1.1.3.1 Secondary Succession: The re-construction of life after a disturbance to an area that already had existing living organisms (Example: A forest re-growing after an intense forest fire)
1.1.3.1.1 Climax Community: A climax community is a community already matured, continually changing over time. (Example, boreal forest, temperate rainforest, or grassland)
1.1.3.1.1.1 A climax community = biome
1.1.3.1.1.1.1
1.1.3.1.2 Once all of this has been completed, you end up with a climax community . . .
1.1.3.2 The first step to growing an ecosystem is . . .
1.1.3.3 After primary succession, secondary succession occurs . . .
1.1.4 Food web: A model of feeding relationships within an ecosystem formed in interconnected food chains
1.1.4.1 Trophic levels: A trophic level shows how energy is passed throughout a food chain + web.
1.1.4.1.1
1.1.4.1.2 Similar to . . .
1.1.4.2 Food webs contain biotic factors . . .
1.1.4.2.1
1.2 Main part of a biome is . . .
2 Nutrient cycles: The way nutrients are cycled in the biosphere and the continuous exchange of nutrients in and out of stores
2.1 Stores: Nutrients accumulated for short or longer periods of time in Earth's oceans, atmosphere, and land masses. (Example: Carbon is stored in the deep ocean)
2.1.1 Short term: Top layers of the ocean, coal deposits, and fossil fuels
2.1.2 Long term:Marine sediments, the deep ocean, and sedimentary rook
2.2
2.2.1
2.3 Both biomagnificaion and nutrients are cycled throughout trophic levels
2.4 Carbon cycle: The carbon cycle is essential to life, and is cycled and stored in the ecosystem in many different ways. Animals and plants contribute to carbon.
2.4.1 Producers (plants) and consumers (animals) contribute to carbon in the atmosphere
2.4.1.1
2.4.1.1.1
2.4.1.1.1.1
2.4.1.1.1.1.1
2.4.1.1.2 Carbon is also cycled through ecosystems with photosynthesis
2.4.1.1.2.1
2.4.1.1.2.2 And cellular respiration!
3 Biosphere: The thin layer of water, land, or air where all living things on Earth exist
3.1 In the biosphere, there are . . .
3.2 Biosphere contains
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