AQA GCSE Biology B2.1 Cells and simple cell transport

Katie Nunn
Mind Map by Katie Nunn, updated more than 1 year ago
Katie Nunn
Created by Katie Nunn over 5 years ago
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GCSE Biology Mind Map on AQA GCSE Biology B2.1 Cells and simple cell transport, created by Katie Nunn on 02/12/2014.

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AQA GCSE Biology B2.1 Cells and simple cell transport
1 Cell and Cell Structure
1.1 All living things made of cells. Small only seen with a microscope.
1.1.1 Most human and animal cells have the following:
1.1.1.1 A nucleus which controls the activities of the cell. Also contains the chromosomes
1.1.1.1.1 A cell membrane which that controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell
1.1.1.1.1.1 Cytoplasm which is where many of the chemical reactions happen in the cell
1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Mitochondria which is where respiration takes place, where energy is released during aerobic respiration
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Ribosomes where protein synthesis takes place
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 In addition to these things plant and algal cells also have:
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 A rigid cell wall made of cellulose to help keep the structure of the cell & strengthens it
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 A permanent vacuole filled with cell sap
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Chloroplasts which contain chlorophyll which is a green substance that absorbs sunlight for photosythesis
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Plant cells are different from animal cells because they have different functions
2 Bacteria & Yeast
2.1 Bacteria are v small
2.1.1 Bacterial cells have a cell membrane and cytoplasm surrounded by a cell wall
2.1.1.1 Bacterial cells do not have a nucleus so the genetic material is in the cytoplasm
2.2 Yeast is a single celled organism
2.2.1 Yeast cells have a nucleus, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall
3 Specialised Cells
3.1 Cells may be specialised to carry out a particular function
3.1.1 For example:
3.1.1.1 Sperm cells have a tail so that they can swim and a rounded head so that they are streamlined to aid swimming
3.1.1.1.1 Root Hair cells are long and thin to absorb water and nutrients from the cell
3.1.1.1.1.1 Muscles cells have many mitochondria as they need a lot of energy
3.1.1.1.1.1.1 The structure of a cell gives a clue to its function
4 Diffusion
4.1 Dissolved substances can move into and out of cells by diffusion
4.1.1 Diffusion is the spreading of particles of gas or of any substance in solution resulting in net movement from an area of high concentration into an area of low concentration
4.1.1.1 The difference in concentration between the two areas is called the concentration gradient ~ Diffusion happens when particles move down the concentration gradient
4.1.1.1.1 The larger the difference in concentration the faster the rate of diffusion
4.1.1.1.1.1 The shorter the diffusion distance the quicker it occurs
4.1.1.1.1.1.1 The larger the surface area for diffusion the faster it occurs
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 The smaller the particles the faster the rate of diffusion
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Oxygen required for respiration passes through cell membranes by diffusion
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