Biology Unit 1a - GCSE - AQA

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Quick questions on Unit 1a of GCSE AQA Biology.

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Question Answer
what are all the food groups you should eat to have a balanced diet? carbohydrates fats protein fibre vitamins mineral ions
what do the different food groups in a balance diet do to help you? carbohydrates - ENERGY fats - ENERGY/ keep warm protein - growth/ cell REPAIR/ REPLACEMENT fibre - to keep the digestive system smooth vitamins/ mineral ions - keep your BODY HEALTHY
what kind of diseases are caused by a lack of certain vitamins or minerals? deficiency diseases (e.g. lack of VITAMIN C causes SCURVY)
what does your body have to do (in terms of energy) to lose weight? increase the amount of energy needed by the body by doing exercise and this therefore decreases the amount of energy stored as fat
what defences does your body have to prevent microorganisms getting into it? skin hairs mucus platelets in the blood white blood cells
what are bacteria like? what do they do? very small cells produce toxins damage cells
what are viruses like? what do they do? not cells replicate within body cells burst out of the cells when complete this is what makes you fell ill
what is the MMR vaccine used for? mumps measles rubella
what are the two main types of white blood cells? what do they do? phagocytes - engulf the foreign cells lymphocytes - produce anti-toxins/ anti-bodies
how does natural resistance occur? random mutation resistant to antibiotics survive reproduce and pass on resistance
why must we not over use antibiotics? bacteria is more likely to develop resistance
what are vaccinations? dead or inactive pathogens which are injected into the body
what are the steps for growing a culture? - pour hot agar jelly into a sterilised petri-dish - heat an inoculating loop in a flame - apply the culture to the agar jelly using the inoculating loop - replace the lid immediately after applying the culture and tape closed
what temperature should the culture be incubated at? 25 degrees Celsius as this prevents any unwanted microbes growing
what are the three stages of drug testing? tissue/ cells animals willing volunteers (often will be ill)
what is the gap between two neurones called? synapse
how does a signal pass over a synapse? - electrical impulse causes the neurone to create neurotransmitters - these diffuse across the gap - set off another electrical impulse in the new neurone - the neurotransmitter is then destroyed
what are the different parts of the reflex arc? stimulus (e.g. bee sting) receptor (e.g. skin receptors) sensory neurone CNS (relay neurone) motor neurone effector (e.g. muscle) response (e.g. contracts)
what are the differences between nerves and hormones? nerves: act faster/last for a shorter time/ precise area hormones: slower message/ lasts for a longer time/ more general effect
what are the four stages of the menstrual cycle? stage 1 - bleeding starts as uterus wall breaks down (days 1 to 4) stage 2 - lining of uterus builds up again (days 4 to 14) stage 3 - egg develops and releases (day 14) stage 4 - uterus lining is maintained (days 14 to 28)
what are the three hormones involved in the menstrual cycle? LH FSH Oestrogen
what do the three hormones do? FSH - matures the egg/ stimulates oestrogen to be made Oestrogen - inhibits FSH/ stimulates LH to be made LH - releases egg from ovary
what is a hormone? chemicals released directly into the blood
what is the main hormone in plants? auxin
how does auxin affect growth in shoots? and in roots? shoots - increases growth roots - inhibits growth
what are the three types of responses which auxin controls in a plant? gravity (geotropism) moisture (hydrotropism) light (phototropism)
how is water lost through the body? the SKIN as SWEAT in our BREATH via our LUNGS via the KIDNEYS in our URINE
what are the three main types of drugs? recreational medicinal performance-enhancing
what are the arguments for and against performance-enhancing drugs? FOR: it's their own decision/ drug-free sport isn't fair anyway (different coaches/ facilities) AGAINST: it gives them an advantage without training/ may not be informed about the health risks of the drugs
what are statins used for? lowering the risk of heart and circulatory disease
how can you test how well a drug works? create two groups one has new drug other has 'placebo' (sugar pill) compare results
how are drug trials often carried out? they are always blind, and often double-blind so that neither the patient nor the doctor make conclusions based on their knowledge - consciously or subconsciously
why might people use recreational drugs? enjoyment relaxation stress relief to get stoned inspiration
what are the issues involved with smoking? can cause disease of the heart/lungs tobacco smoke causes cancer nicotine is addictive
what are the issues involved with drinking? affects the nervous system - slows responses impaired judgement unconsciousness poor coordination addictive damages the liver/ brain
where are LH, FSH and Oestrogen made? FSH/ LH - pituitary gland Oestrogen - ovaries
what are the processes involved with IVF? FSH/LH given before to stimulate egg production eggs are collected from womb fertilised in a lab with sperm incubated and grown as embryos one or two transferred into uterus/womb (improves chance of pregnancy)
what does the body need to control? ion content sugar content water content temperature
water loss on a cold day? not sweating as much more urine produced pale colour (diluted)
water loss on a hot day? sweat a lot less urine darker colour (more concentrated)
what was Thalidomide developed as? sleeping pill/ curing Insomnia
what was Thalidomide used as instead? curing morning sickness
what were the side effects of using Thalidomide as a morning sickness cure? caused limb abnormalities
why had this side effect not been detected beforehand? because it was not tested as use for curing morning sickness