Restless Earth

Hannah Beck
Mind Map by Hannah Beck, updated more than 1 year ago
Hannah Beck
Created by Hannah Beck over 5 years ago
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A mind map for the topic Restless Earth for GCSE Geography. Hope it helps!! <:0)

Resource summary

Restless Earth
1 Plate Margins
1.1 Constructive
1.1.1 Where plates move apart
1.2 Conservative
1.2.1 Where the plates slide past eachother
1.3 Destructive
1.3.1 Where plates collide
1.4 Collision
1.4.1 A type of destructive plate boundary
2 Crusts
2.1 Oceanic
2.1.1 Under the oceans
2.1.2 5-10 km thick
2.1.3 Dense
2.2 Continental
2.2.1 Under the continents
2.2.2 Less dense
2.2.3 25-100km thick
3 Landforms
3.1 Shield Volcanoes
3.2 Composite Volcanoes
3.3 Fold Mountains
3.4 Tsumanis
3.5 Earthquakes
3.6 Supervolcanoes
4 Case Studies
4.1 The Alps
4.1.1 Problems
4.1.1.1 Steep Slope
4.1.1.2 Soil is dry and rocky
4.1.1.3 Deforestation
4.1.2 Uses
4.1.2.1 Farming
4.1.2.2 Tourism
4.1.2.3 Forestry
4.1.2.4 Hydro-electric Power
4.1.2.5 Mining
4.1.3 Formed when plate collide at destructive plate boundaries
4.2 Yellow Stone
4.2.1 Impacts
4.2.1.1 Magma would be flung 50 km into the atmosphere
4.2.1.2 Life in the radius of 1000 km fromt he eruption would be killed by suffocation of ash, lava flows and the force of the explosion
4.2.1.3 Crops wouldn't grow and people would starve
4.2.1.4 Economies would collapse
4.2.1.5 Society would not survive
4.3 Monserrat
4.3.1 Primary Impacts
4.3.1.1 Plymouth was covered in 12 m of mud and ash
4.3.1.2 19 people died and 7 were injured
4.3.1.3 Over 20 villages and 2/3 of homes on the island were destroyed due to the pyroclastic flow
4.3.2 Secondary Impacts
4.3.2.1 Fires destroyed local government offices, police headquarters and the town's central petrol station
4.3.2.2 Population decline- 8,000 of the island 12,000 left since the eruptions began in 1995
4.3.2.3 Tourism is now increasing- people come to see the volcano
4.3.3 Immediate responses
4.3.3.1 People were evacuated from the South to safe areas in the North
4.3.3.2 The UK provided £17 million of emergency aid
4.3.3.3 Temporary infrastructure was built
4.3.4 Long- term responses
4.3.4.1 Risk map was created in an exclusion zone
4.3.4.2 UK provided £41 million to develop the north of the island (New docks, airport and houses)
4.4 Haiti
4.4.1 Immediate responses
4.4.1.1 American engineers cleared up the worst debris and to get the port working again
4.4.1.2 The Haitian government moved 235,000 people from Port-au-Prince to safer places
4.4.2 Long- term responses
4.4.2.1 Haiti would depend on over seas aid to help them recover
4.4.2.2 Larger scale investment would be needed to help sort out the roads, electricity, water and telephones so that they were up to the standards.
4.4.3 Primary effects
4.4.3.1 220,000 people were killed and 300,000 were injured
4.4.3.2 8 hospitals in Port- au- Prince collapsed or were badly damaged. Many Government building were also destroyed
4.4.4 Secondary effects
4.4.4.1 2 millions Haitians were left with no food or water. Looting became a serious problem
4.4.4.2 By November 2010, the were outbreaks cholera and other diseases due to living in shelters and tents
4.5 L'Aquilla
4.5.1 Primary effects
4.5.1.1 Around 290 deaths
4.5.1.2 Thousands of buildings were damaged or destroyed
4.5.1.3 A bridge near Fossa collapsed and a water pipe broke near the town on Paganica
4.5.2 Secondary effects
4.5.2.1 After shocks hampered rescue efforts and cause more damage
4.5.2.2 The broken pipe in Paganica that burst, caused a landslide
4.5.3 Immediate responses
4.5.3.1 The government provided money to pay rent. Gas and electric bills were suspended
4.5.3.2 International teams were sent in with rescue dogs to look for survivors
4.5.4 Long- term responses
4.5.4.1 The Italian Prime Minister promised to build a new town to replace L'Aquila (the capital city)
4.5.4.2 An on going investigation to why the modern buildings weren't build to with stand earthquakes
5 The structure of the earth
5.1 Crust
5.1.1 A hard outer shell
5.2 Mantle
5.2.1 Soft molten rock- about 3800°c
5.3 Outer core
5.3.1 Liquid iron and nickel
5.4 Inner core
5.4.1 Solid, very hot- up to 5500°c
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