Why do food shortages occur

Hannah Lim
Mind Map by Hannah Lim, updated more than 1 year ago
Hannah Lim
Created by Hannah Lim over 5 years ago
20
1

Description

Mind Map on Why do food shortages occur, created by Hannah Lim on 12/06/2014.

Resource summary

Why do food shortages occur
1 PHYSICAL
1.1 CLIMATE CHANGE: variation global climate/climate patterns in long term
1.1.1 Cause existing farmland become unsuitable while lengthen growth season in other areas
1.1.1.1 no longer grow in areas previously suitable while crops farmed in other areas previously unsuitable
1.1.2 BRAZIL, INDIA, PAKISTAN, TURKEY, USA, SEA, AUST: Staple food producers decrease by 50%.
1.1.2.1 ARGENTINA, CANADA, CHINA, FRANCE, RUSSIA, NORTHERN PARTS OF USA: Staple food producer increase production by 35%
1.1.2.1.1 Seasonal melting of glaciers in Himalayas provides river basins of major rivers in India, China with water to irrigate crops during dry season.
1.2 EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS: Weather events which may cause loss of lives or damage to property
1.2.1 Droughts : reduce water supply. Tropical cyclones: flooding
1.2.2 Crop damage, unable recover from loss, more frequent climate change
1.3 PESTS
1.3.1 Rabbits, moles, insects
1.3.2 LIBERIA, 2009: Tens of millions of caterpillars invaded country. According to FAO, caterpillars devoured all plants and food crops.
2 POLITICAL
2.1 CIVIL STRIFE: situation country faces major internal conflicts leading to riots, unrest, civil war
2.1.1 Disputes over resources that affect food production, destroy resources. Lack of supply cause of conflict=vicious cycle
2.1.1.1 Landmines planted on farmlands reduce or completely stop food production
2.2 POOR GOVERNANCE
2.2.1 GOVERNANCE: Exercise of economic, political authority to manage country's affairs.
2.2.1.1 Corruption, policy errors, inability to implement. Prioritise other development needs over food security=local farmers left with smaller plots of land for farming=smaller crop yield
2.2.2 MADHYA PRADESH, 2010: 40,000 villagers deprived of land for farming due to development of mining, steel plant and port. Villagers lost means to produce own food limited income to buy food.
3 ECONOMIC
3.1 DEMAND FROM EMERGING ECONOMIES
3.1.1 BRAZIL, RUSSIA, INDIA, CHINA: Developing economies grow at rates allow them to contribute to global economy
3.1.1.1 High increase food demand, esp. meat diary products
3.1.1.1.1 Sustained growth for food from these countries deplete food inventories(esp. grain). Due to rapidly growing middle class more purchasing power and changing food preferences. Food shortage poorer countries.
3.2 FOOD POLICY
3.2.1 Stockpile food staples in case emergency as part of policy=food shortage in other countries.
3.2.1.1 FINANCIAL TIMES, ALGERIA, JAN 2011: Bought 800,000 tonnes wheat to add to stockpile. Cause several other LDC do the same. Saudi Arabia double stockpile, Indonesia agreed to purchase 4x usual amount. Reduced supply staples worldwide=global prices rise, worsened food shortage in some LDCs.
3.2.2 Food subsidies; money paid by govt or org to make food more affordable to consumers (cash, food vouchers, tax deduction)
3.2.2.1 US 2012: US$74.6billion distributed to 47.4million. MASSACHUSETTS: Food subsidies form of food staples given to citizens whose total income do not reach certain amount depending household size, existing properties.
3.2.2.1.1 Country unable afford=food shortage continue
3.2.2.2 SRI LANKA BEFORE 1979: Gave discounted rice rations to half of pop. regardless of income. Wealthy benefit most continued food shortage for poor, needy. After, switched food subsidy scheme, distribute based on income. Increase calorie consumption by 12% among 20% poorest of pop.
3.3 SOARING COST OF FERTILISER TRANSPORT
3.3.1 Cost of producing food(food prices transport costs) directly related food prices.
3.3.1.1 Energy cost(esp. oil) increase=increase price fertiliser, transport, machine operation costs=>price of food
3.3.1.1.1 2011: World crude oil price increased 10.3%. Kazakhstan, major producer wheat, increase price of wheat exported to Tajikistan due to rise in fuel cost.
3.4 CONVERSION FARMLAND TO INDUSTRIAL CROP PRODUCTION
3.4.1 Growing crops industrial more profitable, companies, farmers convert farmland grow crops for biofuel
3.4.1.1 BIOFUEL: Fuels that derive energy from biological carbons instead of fossil fuels(coals)
3.4.1.1.1 Corn, sugar cane, palm oil
3.4.2 2009, UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE: 25% food crops grown in USA became fuel for vehicles instead of food for 330 million ppl for one year. IFPRI 2006-2007: 30% of increase food prices related to production of biofuels.
4 SOCIAL
4.1 LACK OF ACCESSIBILITY
4.1.1 Accessibility to food: how easily residents can reach available food.
4.1.1.1 Transport facilities(roads, railway links) available for far away from shop, > food outlets and location= >accessibility
4.1.2 LDC, food outlets few and far apart. Ppl unable obtain fresh produce, smaller food intake.
4.2 INADEQUATE LOGISTICS OF FOOD DISTRIBUTION AND STORAGE
4.2.1 FOOD DISTRIBUTION: Movement food from farms to retail outlets.
4.2.1.1 Presence of good transport network.
4.2.1.2 Accessibility affected by physical barriers(mountains, landslides)=stability of food supply affected
4.2.2 TIMOR-LESTE: 1/3 pop. food shortage in between harvests. Worsened by lack of shortage facilities and difficulty of accessing the numerous remote communities.
4.3 RAPID POP GROWTH
4.3.1 FAO: World pop. reach 10 billion 2050. Need increase food production ensure global food security.
4.3.2 2025: 75% Sub-saharan Africa, already small amount land suitable for farming further declining due to rising temp.
4.3.2.1 Threat food production and food security. Condition worsened by high pop. growth urban rural areas-high risk food shortage.
Show full summary Hide full summary

Similar

Romeo and Juliet: Act by Act
PatrickNoonan
A Christmas Carol - Charles Dickens
chloeprincess10
10 Study Techniques
PatrickNoonan
Memory - AQA Psychology Unit 1 GCSE
joshua6729
Sociology- Family and Households Flashcards
Heloise Tudor
Symbols in Lord of the Flies
lowri_luxton
French Essay Writing Vocab
caitlindavies8
Random German A-level Vocab
Libby Shaw
Business Studies - AQA - GCSE - Types of Ownership
Josh Anderson
“In gaining knowledge, each area of knowledge uses a network of ways of knowing.” Discuss this statement with reference to two areas of knowledge
Julianapabab
Procedimientos Operacionales
Adriana Forero