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Science Consequence Map
Urvi Patel
Mind Map by Urvi Patel, updated more than 1 year ago
Urvi Patel
Created by Urvi Patel over 7 years ago

Resource summary

  1. Scientific Consequence
    1. What is it?
      1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
        1. A virus that reduces the strength by diminishing crucial cells that assist in fighting against disease and infection (such as white blood cells)
        2. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
          1. Final stage of HIV is AIDS where the immune system is severely damaged and the person becomes susceptible to the numerous infections and diseases that exist.
          2. Symptoms
            1. Depends on Stage
              1. Early Stage
                1. Fever, sore throat, swollen glands, rash, etc.
                2. Advanced Stage
                  1. Rapid weight loss, extreme fatigue, pneumonia, memory loss, depression, etc.
              2. Transmission among People
                1. Is spread when blood, vaginal fluid, semen or other body fluids enters another person’s body when participating in the following activities
                  1. Engaging in unprotected sex, Blood transfusion, Sharing needles, Mother-to-child transmission (during pregnancy), Breastfeeding
              3. History
                1. How it Began?
                  1. Some scientists suppose HIV was passed onto humans from chimpanzees (or a species of monkeys). A theory most people believe is that the infected monkeys were hunted for meat and eaten which transferred the virus to humans and then spread.
                    1. Spread in Africa first and the epidemic began as the illness dispersed to nations all around the world
                  2. Evolution Overtime
                    1. 1970s: The illness enters the US and spreads rapidly in Africa
                      1. 1980-84: Majority of the first infected people were gay men or injecting drug user, the infection was given the formal name of AIDS, scientists discover HIV is the cause of AIDS, more people are affected
                        1. 1985-89: Aids has spread to all parts of the world and a HIV test is authorized, AZT (a drug) is allowed to treat AIDS, World AIDS Day is announced on December 1st
                          1. 1990-99: AZT not effective to those in early stages, however reduced mother to child transmissions which resulted in reduction of infant infections, combination antiretroviral treatment is developed and is more powerful against HIV resulting in reduced deaths in developed countries
                            1. 2000s: AIDS drugs reasonably priced for developing countries, leaders and nations altogether continue to work on treatments/vaccines to aid those in need and reduce the number of people being affected.
                  3. Prevention Methods
                    1. Condom usage during sexual activities, Male circumcision, Safe sex education for youth at an appropriate age
                      1. Never sharing needles and ensuring they are disinfected, Testing for HIV and other common STI’s or infections, Avoid injecting drugs
                        1. To prevent mother to child transmission, baby should receive medications after birth and should not be breastfed in order for some recovery
                        2. Treatments/Vaccines
                          1. Cures
                            1. No cure available or generated yet
                            2. Treatments
                              1. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis
                                1. Is HIV medicine utilized by those who are more vulnerable to being infected by HIV and is often used with other prevention methods
                                2. Post-exposure Prophylaxis
                                  1. Is HIV medicine utilized by those who may have been potentially exposed to HIV in order to reduce risk of infection
                                3. Antiretroviral Therapy
                                  1. Using a combination of HIV medicines to treat HIV
                                    1. Lengthens life span, decreases threat of sexual transmission of HIV, restricts HIV from multiplying which assists in strengthening immune system and reducing amount of infected cells in body
                                    2. Side Effects
                                      1. Vary depending on type your taking, but some may include headaches, swelling of mouth, liver or tongue damage, etc.
                                    3. Vaccines
                                      1. What is a vaccine?
                                        1. Product created to secure people from specific diseases/infections in order to help control or prevent disease outbreaks/epidemics
                                          1. Given through needle injections, by mouth or aerosol spray
                                          2. HIV vaccine
                                            1. No vaccine created to prevent or cure HIV yet however taking other vaccines designed to fight against other diseases is beneficial (such as Hep B or Flu shots)
                                              1. Type
                                                1. Preventive vaccine:to stop HIV illness altogether
                                                  1. Therapeutic vaccine-to prevent or postpone illness for those who are already infected and reduce risk of transmission
                                                  2. Characteristics
                                                    1. Would have to stimulate immune system or generate cells to combat against HIV, effective vaccine would require both cells and antibodies (combination of cells and chemicals) to work together, be safe for all people (children, women, etc.), able to provide protection for long period of time.
                                                  3. Challenges Creating HIV Vaccine
                                                    1. No known recovery from HIV or AIDS
                                                      1. HIV influences immune system cells which are in charge of protecting your body from such diseases
                                                        1. After being infected for a certain period, HIV implants itself in genetic material where it is difficult to treat
                                                    2. Scientific Research
                                                      1. Vaccination research to prevent infection spreading at rapid pace, Finding antibodies to protect or combat against HIV, Looking at structure of HIV, How to prevent HIV from inserting into genetic material of cells, How to limit damage to body, Better treatment that lengthens life span
                                                    3. Social Consequence
                                                      1. AIDS education
                                                        1. Grade 1-9 (for most schools) students have health education where they are educated about personal growth & development, healthy living and substance use & abuse. Include teaching students about HIV/AIDS when they reach an appropriate age and may engage in sexual activities. Effects and consequences of illness are taught along with methods of prevention and causes of infection. HIV/AIDS are taught along with STI’s.
                                                        2. Effects on Lifestyle
                                                          1. Mental
                                                            1. May experience anxiety, depression, constant worry, loneliness,
                                                            2. Personal
                                                              1. Various doctor visits, daily medications to take, restrictions from doing certain activities, women avoid getting pregnant, expensive medications that have to be paid off, difficult to make relationships or sometimes get employed, extra precautions to prevent exposure to any other disease
                                                              2. Physical
                                                                1. Body becomes weak as immune system is affected; medications have side effects on body, fat can be lost or gained, skin rashes, infection may affect other systems
                                                              3. Cultures Affected
                                                                1. African Americans
                                                                  1. Primarily discriminated or judged due to the widespread impact in Africa and among their people
                                                                  2. People from Caribbean
                                                                    1. Judged due to increase of HIV/AIDS cases among their people
                                                                      1. Stigma, fear, discrimination, homophobia and negative perception about HIV testing can put many of those exposed at a higher risk, Both groups fear discrimination and rejection more than the infection itself.
                                                                  3. Groups Affected
                                                                    1. Directly
                                                                      1. Gay/bisexual men, people who inject drugs, prisoners, women (more likely to be affected than men), Aboriginal People
                                                                        1. These more vulnerable groups are judged for their position in the HIV/AIDS epidemic and often become isolated in society.
                                                                          1. Women with HIV worry about having children and any close relations both inside & outside of family may become distant after discovering one may be infected.
                                                                            1. Those living in poverty are known to be affected more as they don’t receive the same education as others and aren't educated about the causes behind this virus.
                                                                          2. Indirectly
                                                                            1. Any loved ones, people who shared close relationship with person affected by infection, colleagues at work, people not educated about infection
                                                                              1. Some fear any contact with infected person may contract virus
                                                                            2. Connections/Divisions
                                                                              1. Brings together people who are affected by virus as they understand one another and are comfortable with sharing thoughts, opinions and feelings towards situation.
                                                                                1. Connects people who want to provide assistance to those with HIV/AIDS and have knowledge on the infection.
                                                                                  1. Divide between those who have the virus and those who don’t. Stigma and fear among people aren’t affected, as they are afraid the infection will transfer to them.
                                                                                2. Global Consequence
                                                                                  1. Countries Affected
                                                                                    1. Sub-Saharan Africa
                                                                                      1. Had most severe HIV & AIDS epidemic, 2.5 million people were living with HIV in 2012 and the country resulted in social and economic consequence.
                                                                                      2. Asia
                                                                                        1. Wasn’t affected until early 1980s and doesn’t have high rates of infection
                                                                                        2. Middle East & North Africa
                                                                                          1. Region with lowest HIV occurrence rates in the world
                                                                                          2. Worldwide illness, affected other places like Latin America, the Caribbean, USA, Russia, Europe, etc.
                                                                                          3. Raising Awareness
                                                                                            1. Global Vaccine Action Plan aims to prevent deaths through more reasonable access to vaccines for people in both developing & developed countries. World AIDS Day: established to increase awareness, fighting stigma, enhancing education, transporting resources, and raising funds to help foundations. UN Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS: developed 10 targets regarding HIV/AIDS to be met by 2015
                                                                                            2. Global Prevention
                                                                                              1. Providing developing countries with assistance and treatment. Countries sharing new knowledge and research. UNAIDS: Joint United Nations Program for global action against AIDS. Governments encouraging safe sex. Trying to improve health care systems in other poor communities.
                                                                                              2. People Affected
                                                                                                1. 35.0 million people with HIV/AIDS worldwide in 2013 3.2 million people were children
                                                                                              3. Local Consequence
                                                                                                1. People Affected In Ontario
                                                                                                  1. Aboriginal People
                                                                                                    1. Amount Affected
                                                                                                      1. Rate of new HIV infections among them is predicted to be 3.6 times higher; they make up for about 12.5% of new HIV infections along with 8.0% of existing infections in Canada
                                                                                                      2. Support
                                                                                                        1. Ontario Aboriginal HIV/AIDS Strategy established to supply respectful, sensitive programs to acknowledge the increasing number of cases among Aboriginals and recognize their needs to recover
                                                                                                      3. Gay/Bisexual Mean
                                                                                                        1. Amount Affected
                                                                                                          1. In 2008, 15 072 gay/bisexual men were infected in the province (57% of all infections in Ontario)
                                                                                                          2. Support
                                                                                                            1. Ontario’s Gay Men’s Sexual Health Alliance (GMSH) was formed to acknowledge the sexual health requirements of Ontario’s diversified community of gay/bisexual men. It funds for Provincial HIV testing campaigns. Assists in the development of policies and resources to meet the needs of gay or bisexual men at risk.
                                                                                                              1. Objectives: To decrease transmission of HIV and other common STI’s to improve their health
                                                                                                          3. African & Caribbean Ontarians
                                                                                                            1. Amount Affected
                                                                                                              1. 4878 living with HIV/AIDS in 2008, number of new HIV infections increased by 124% among this community from 1996-2008
                                                                                                              2. Support
                                                                                                                1. African & Caribbean Council on HIV/AIDS in Ontario (ACCHO) developed to avoid spread among this specific community by supplying HIV tests
                                                                                                              3. # of Infections
                                                                                                                1. About 15 904 in 1999 had risen to 26 627 in 2008 (increase by 67%)
                                                                                                                  1. Communities at Risk
                                                                                                                    1. Aboriginal People, Gay/Bisexual Men, African & Caribbean Ontarians, people who use injection drugs, women who participate in high risk activities with above communities
                                                                                                                2. HIV Testing
                                                                                                                  1. Anonymous Testing Program
                                                                                                                    1. Offered at about 50 sites across country and do not request any type of identity due to stigma associated with HIV/AIDS
                                                                                                                    2. Point of Care HIV Testing
                                                                                                                      1. Pricking finger in order to test blood; if negative, instantaneous results are given and no further work is involved. If reactive, blood sample sent to laboratory for standard testing.
                                                                                                                      2. Standard HIV Testing
                                                                                                                        1. Blood sample taken and sent to public health laboratory, wait lasts about 2 weeks
                                                                                                                        2. Testing by Healthcare Providers
                                                                                                                          1. Doctors, midwives and nurse practitioners request HIV tests using your name or a code depending on person’s comfort
                                                                                                                          2. Prenatal HIV Testing Program
                                                                                                                            1. HIV testing for pregnant women as part of pre-natal care. If infected, treatment is given to mother and the child.
                                                                                                                          3. Prevention in Ontario/Monitoring
                                                                                                                            1. Government of Ontario monitors HIV/AIDS epidemic growth/decline with the assistance of Dr. Robert Remis (epidemiologist who works with Ontario HIV Epidemiological Monitoring Unit from University of Toronto)
                                                                                                                              1. Provides reports to analyze evolution of epidemic Data on HIV/AIDS diagnoses and mortality
                                                                                                                              2. HIV testing available at numerous locations along with counseling to inform people on risk reduction, Prenatal HIV testing programs available, Providing funding for Ontario’s HIV Treatment Network to support research, HIV clinics open to public, AIDS & Sexual Health Info Line to provide information and anonymous counseling, Ontario AIDS Network that assists those with HIV and preventing further spread, providing education to youth about safe sex and consequences
                                                                                                                              3. Supportive Programs
                                                                                                                                1. Casey House
                                                                                                                                  1. For people suffering through last stages of HIV/AIDS. Is a 12-bed residence that offers medical & nursing care along with nutrition, counseling and more. Raises funds to maintain services like Community Nursing Program, Therapies, The Child Care Fund, etc.
                                                                                                                                  2. Fife House
                                                                                                                                    1. For people with HIV. Supplies housing and care along with support for those who may have mental health concerns.
                                                                                                                                    2. Ontario Advisory Committee on HIV/AIDS
                                                                                                                                      1. Group that supplies vast social and health policies to the Minister of Health & Long-Term Care on HIV/AIDS. Associated with public health reform, HIV/AIDS education in school, HIV & organ transplantation and dealing with health care for those with no insurance.

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