1.1 Why does benzene follow the delocalised model & not the Kekule' structure?
1.1.1 1- Bond Length: The bond length of a single bond is longer than a double bond,
however in benzene all the bond lengths are equal due to the delocalised electrons
distributed around the whole structure
126.96.36.199 2- Kekule suggested the benzene reacts in a similar way to alkenes but under
normal conditions benzene doesn't decolourise bromine water. Also benzene
undergoes substitution reactions and not addition
188.8.131.52.1 3- the enthalpy change of hydrogenation is more stable in benzene than alkenes
due to the delocalised electron ring distributed around the whole structure
1.2 Reactions of benzene:
2.1 Why does phenol react more readily than benzene?
2.1.1 1- In phenol electron density increases (oxygen)
184.108.40.206 2- The electrophile attacking Phenol becomes polarised (due to oxygen)
220.127.116.11.1 3- The delocalised electron ring also pulls the oxygen electrons into the
delocalised electron cloud
18.104.22.168.1.1 4- Phenols undergo substitution reactions easier due to the lone pair
on the oxygen
2.2 Reactions of phenols
2.3 uses of phenols:
2.3.1 Production of plastics,
resins for paints & varnishes.
3.1 Aldehydes are prepared from the distillation (oxidation) of primary
alcohols using acidified potassium dichromate.
3.2 testing for Primary, secondary
and tertiary alcohols: using
dichromate: the color change
should be from orange to