F324- Rings, Polymers & Analysis

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sundus.student
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Mind Map on F324- Rings, Polymers & Analysis, created by sundus.student on 12/18/2014.
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F324- Rings, Polymers & Analysis
1 BENZENE
1.1 Why does benzene follow the delocalised model & not the Kekule' structure?
1.1.1 1- Bond Length: The bond length of a single bond is longer than a double bond, however in benzene all the bond lengths are equal due to the delocalised electrons distributed around the whole structure
1.1.1.1 2- Kekule suggested the benzene reacts in a similar way to alkenes but under normal conditions benzene doesn't decolourise bromine water. Also benzene undergoes substitution reactions and not addition
1.1.1.1.1 3- the enthalpy change of hydrogenation is more stable in benzene than alkenes due to the delocalised electron ring distributed around the whole structure
1.1.1.1.1.1
1.2 Reactions of benzene:
1.2.1
1.2.1.1
1.2.2
1.2.2.1
2 PHENOL
2.1 Why does phenol react more readily than benzene?
2.1.1 1- In phenol electron density increases (oxygen)
2.1.1.1 2- The electrophile attacking Phenol becomes polarised (due to oxygen)
2.1.1.1.1 3- The delocalised electron ring also pulls the oxygen electrons into the delocalised electron cloud
2.1.1.1.1.1 4- Phenols undergo substitution reactions easier due to the lone pair on the oxygen
2.2 Reactions of phenols
2.2.1
2.2.1.1
2.2.2
2.3 uses of phenols:
2.3.1 Production of plastics, antiseptics, disinfectants, resins for paints & varnishes.
3 Carbonyl's
3.1 Aldehydes are prepared from the distillation (oxidation) of primary alcohols using acidified potassium dichromate.
3.1.1
3.2 testing for Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols: using acidified potassium dichromate: the color change should be from orange to green
3.2.1
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