Matthew Law
Mind Map by , created about 6 years ago

GCSE Biology (B4 - The Processes of Life) Mind Map on Enzymes, created by Matthew Law on 08/28/2013.

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Matthew Law
Created by Matthew Law about 6 years ago
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Enzymes
1 enzymes = PROTEINS PRODUCED BY LIVING THINGS
1.1 enzymes are produced by living things (plants, animals, Ian, etc.) in order to
1.1.1 speed up chemical reactions
1.1.1.1 remember that.
1.2 living things have thousands of different chemical reactions going on inside them tout de la temp; they need to be carefully controlled in order to get the amounts of substances right
1.3 the instructions for making enzymes (or any other protein) are found in a cell's genes (i.e. DNA)
2 enzymes NEED THE RIGHT TEMPERATURE & pH
2.1 changing the temperature changes the rate of reaction
2.1.1 a higher temperature increases the rate at first
2.1.1.1 but if it gets too hot, some of the bonds holding the enzyme together will break
2.1.1.1.1 this changes the shape of the enzyme's über specific active site, meaning that the substrate no longer fits and the enzyme no longer works
2.1.1.1.1.1 the enzyme is said to be 'denatured'
2.2 it's the same (as the temperature) with the pH...
2.2.1 ...all enzymes have an optimum pH...
2.2.1.1 ...if the pH is too high or too low, it interferes with the bonds holding the enzyme together...
2.2.1.1.1 ...and the active site accordingly changes shape
2.2.1.1.1.1 again, the enzyme is said to be 'denatured'
3 enzymes = ÜBER SPECIFIC
3.1 and I mean über
3.2 the substrate = the molecule that's CHANGED in a reaction.
3.3 chemical reactions usually involve stuff being either joined together or split apart
3.4 every enzyme has an active site, where the enzyme is joined onto the substrate
3.4.1
3.5 as I said, über specific: each enzyme can usually only speed up one reaction
3.5.1 this is because, for an enzyme to work, a substrate must be the RIGHT SHAPE to fit into the active site
3.5.1.1 this is a bit like a lock and key, hence is called the (highly imaginative) 'lock and key' model
3.5.1.1.1 observe the beautifully plagiarized diagram to the left of me
3.5.1.2