Respiration

Matthew Law
Mind Map by Matthew Law, updated more than 1 year ago
Matthew Law
Created by Matthew Law almost 7 years ago
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GCSE Biology (B4 - The Processes of Life) Mind Map on Respiration, created by Matthew Law on 08/28/2013.

Resource summary

Respiration
1 the BASICS
1.1 respiration ISN'T breathing in and out
1.2 respiration = a series of chemical reactions that release energy by breaking down large food molecules
1.3 respiration happens in every cell
1.4 the energy released by respiration is used to power some of the chemical reactions happening in cells, eg...
1.4.1 MOVEMENT
1.4.1.1 energy is needed to make muscles contract
1.4.2 ACTIVE TRANSPORT
1.4.2.1 active transport uses energy to move substances in and out of cells
1.4.3 SYNTHESIS OF LARGE MOLECULES
1.4.3.1 lots of large molecules (polymers) are made by joining a whole loada smaller molecules together, which requires energy. For example...
1.4.3.1.1 GLUCOSE is joined together to make STARCH and CELLULOSE in plant cells.
1.4.3.1.2 in microorganisms and plant and animal cells GLUCOSE and NITROGEN are joined together to make AMINO ACIDS, which are consequently joined together to make PROTEINS
2 there are two types of respiration...
2.1 AEROBIC respiration
2.1.1 'aerobic' = 'with oxygen'
2.1.2 aerobic is the most common type of respiration
2.1.3 it releases MORE ENERGY per glucose molecule than anaerobic respiration
2.1.4 takes place in animal and plant cells, and in some microorganisms
2.1.5 Let's learn the word and symbol equations! Yeah! Fun!
2.2 ANAEROBIC respiration
2.2.1 'anaerobic' = 'without oxygen'
2.2.2 takes place in plant and animal cells and some microorganisms when there ain't enough oxygen, eg...
2.2.2.1 HUMAN CELLS
2.2.2.1.1 when one does vigorous exercise (eg. twerking) your body can't supply enough oxygen for aerobic respiration so cells are forced to COMMENCE ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION
2.2.2.2 PLANT CELLS
2.2.2.2.1 if the soil a plant (eg. doughnut tree) is growing in becomes waterlogged there'll be no oxygen available for the roots and it will be forced to COMMENCE ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION
2.2.2.3 BACTERIAL CELLS
2.2.2.3.1 bacteria can get under your (and my) skin through puncture wounds from things like nails, but there's very little oxygen under your (or my) skin, so the bacteria will be forced to COMMENCE ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION
2.2.3 anaerobic respiration can produce stuff...
2.2.3.1 LACTIC ACID is produced in animal cells and some bacteria
2.2.3.1.1 the word equation is simple:
2.2.3.1.1.1 glucose --> lactic acid (+ energy released)
2.2.3.2 ETHANOL and CARBON DIOXIDE is produced in plant cells and some microorganisms (eg. yeast)
2.2.3.2.1 the word equation is:
2.2.3.2.1.1 glucose --> ethanol + carbon dixide (+ energy released)
2.2.3.2.2 FERMENTATION = when microorganisms break down sugars into other products pendant que ils respire anaerobically
2.2.3.2.2.1 humans use fermentation to make a whole loada things (we're good like that), for example...
2.2.3.2.2.1.1 BIOGAS
2.2.3.2.2.1.1.1 biogas = a fuel used for heating, lighting, etc.
2.2.3.2.2.1.1.2 lots of different microorganisms are used to make biogas
2.2.3.2.2.1.1.2.1 the microorganisms ferment plant and animal waste containing carbohydrates, eg. sugars like glucose
2.2.3.2.2.1.1.2.1.1 the biogas that gets produced is mainly made of methane and carbon dioxide
2.2.3.2.2.1.2 BREAD
2.2.3.2.2.1.2.1 made using yeast, which ferment the carbohydrates in the flour and release carbon dioxide, which causes the bread to rise..yay!
2.2.3.2.2.1.3 ALCOHOL
2.2.3.2.2.1.3.1 alcohol is formed when yeast ferment sugar
2.2.3.2.2.1.3.2 the sugar used in alcohol comes from things like grapes (wine), barley (beer) and Ian (magma).
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