C3

Anna Grimwood
Mind Map by Anna Grimwood, updated more than 1 year ago
Anna Grimwood
Created by Anna Grimwood about 5 years ago
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OCR Gateway GCSE Additional Chemistry - C3

Resource summary

C3
1 Reaction Time
1.1 The time taken between a reaction starting and stopping
1.1.1 Slow Reactions
1.1.1.1 Long reaction times
1.1.1.2 Rusting
1.1.2 Fast Reactions
1.1.2.1 Short reaction times
1.1.2.2 Burning & Explosions
1.2 A reaction stops when one or more of the REACTANTS is used up
1.2.1 If there is enough of one reactant to react with all of the other reactant, it is in EXCESS
1.2.2 The first reactant to be used up is called the LIMITING REACTANT
1.3 MEASURING RATES
1.3.1 The RATE OF REACTION measures the amount of product formed in a fixed period of time
1.3.1.1 Slow reaction
1.3.1.1.1 Small amount of product in a long time
1.3.1.2 Fast Reaction
1.3.1.2.1 Large amount of product in a short time
1.3.1.3 Rate increased by
1.3.1.3.1 Higher temp
1.3.1.3.1.1 particles collide more often
1.3.1.3.1.1.1 And with more energy, resulting in more successful collisions each second
1.3.1.3.2 High concentration
1.3.1.3.2.1 Particles are closer together and collide more often
1.3.1.3.2.1.1
1.3.1.3.3 High Pressure
1.3.1.3.4 Crushing solids into powders
1.3.1.3.4.1 Greater surface area so collisions happen more often
1.3.1.3.5 Using a catalyst
1.3.1.3.5.1 Alters rate but is unchanged at the end

Annotations:

  • eg: If 1g of a catalyst is added to a reaction mixture, there is still 1g of it left after the reaction has finished.
1.4 GAS SYRINGE
1.4.1 Measures the volume of gas produced in a reaction
1.4.1.1 Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric acid --> Calcium Chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide
1.4.1.1.1 CaCO3+ 2HCl --> CaCl2 + H2O + CO2
1.4.1.1.2 How It Works

Annotations:

  • The reaction starts when the calcium carbonate and acid are mixed together. Carbon dioxide pushes the plunger out, and its volume is read at regular intervals from the graduations on the gas syringe.
1.4.1.2 The amount of product formed is DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL to the amount of limiting reactant

Annotations:

  • eg: If the mass of calcium carbonate is doubled, the amount of carbon dioxide also doubles
2 Industrial Reactions
2.1 Continuous Processes
2.1.1 The product is made all the time
2.1.1.1 Used for bulk chemicals which are needed in large amounts
2.1.1.1.1 Ammonia in the Haber process
2.1.1.1.1.1 Reactants are continually fed into a reaction vessel, where they react together
2.1.1.1.1.2 The ammonia produced is collected all the time
2.1.1.1.2 Sulfuric acid
2.1.1.1.3 Chlorine
2.2 Batch Processes
2.2.1 Not made all the time
2.2.1.1 Wine
2.2.1.1.1 Grapes are pressed to release the grape juice, which is then fermented to produce wine
2.2.1.2 Speciality Chemicals
2.2.1.2.1 High value chemicals needed in small amounts
2.2.1.2.1.1 Made on demand when a customer needs them
2.2.1.3 Pharmaceuticals
2.2.1.3.1 Raw materials needed may be made synthetically using chemical reactions or extracted from plants
2.2.1.3.1.1 Several steps are needed to extract chemicals from plants
2.2.1.3.1.1.1 1. Crush plant material
2.2.1.3.1.1.1.1 2. Dissolve in a suitable solvent and then filter
2.2.1.3.1.1.1.1.1 3. Boil to evaporate the solvent
2.2.1.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 4. Separate the chemical by chromatography
3 Making medicines
3.1 Costs
3.1.1 Research and testing

Annotations:

  • Suitable new substances must be identified, then tested to make sure they are safe and effective.
3.1.1.1 Tests

Annotations:

  • Thousands of new substances may be made and tested in the development of a new drug.
  • The 1st tests involve computer simulations and tests on cells grown in the laboratory. The most promising substances are tested on laboratory animals
  • If it passes these first stages, a substance is checked for side effects in healthy human volunteers. It is then tested on a small group of patients to see if it works as expected, and then on a larger group to gather more information on it.
  • All stages in development are expensive and time consuming.
3.1.2 Labour costs

Annotations:

  • Many skilled people are needed
3.1.3 Energy

Annotations:

  • Electricity and fuel are needed and these are expensive
3.1.4 Raw materials

Annotations:

  • The raw materials may be rare or expensive, and complex chemical reactions may be needed to make a drug from them
3.1.5 Time taken for development

Annotations:

  • Research and testing take a long time, and a new drug must be licenced for use.
3.1.6 Marketing

Annotations:

  • Healthcare professionals have to be told about the drug and how to use it.
3.2 Payback time
3.2.1 The time taken to regain money spent on development costs
3.2.1.1 If the patent expires earlier than this, the company may lose a lot of money on the drug
3.2.1.1.1 A patent lasts up to 20 years and prevents other companies from making and selling the drug
3.2.1.1.1.1 Once it expires, anyone is free to produce and sell it
3.3 Impurities
3.3.1 The presence of harmful impurities could make people ill
3.3.1.1 Important to make pharmaceutical drugs as pure as possible
3.3.1.1.1 Testing the purity of pharmaceuticals

Annotations:

  • It is tested by measuring its melting or boiling point, as impurities alter the temperature at which a drug melts or boils. The further the temperature is away from the correct one, the less pure the drug is.
  • It can also be tested by TLC ( Thin Layer Chromatography). The different substances move through the a thin layer of of powder coated onto a glass or plastic plate. Colourless substances show up as spots on the plates when reacted with certain chemicals. These may be fluorescent under ultra violet light, or they may become coloured when heated.
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