The reaction starts when the calcium carbonate and acid are mixed together. Carbon dioxide pushes the plunger out, and its volume is read at regular intervals from the graduations on the gas syringe.
18.104.22.168 The amount of
product formed is
the amount of
eg: If the mass of calcium carbonate is doubled, the amount of carbon dioxide also doubles
2 Industrial Reactions
2.1 Continuous Processes
2.1.1 The product is
made all the
22.214.171.124 Used for bulk chemicals which are needed in large amounts
126.96.36.199.1 Ammonia in the Haber process
188.8.131.52.1.1 Reactants are
into a reaction
184.108.40.206.1.2 The ammonia produced is collected all the time
220.127.116.11.2 Sulfuric acid
2.2 Batch Processes
2.2.1 Not made all the time
18.104.22.168.1 Grapes are pressed to
release the grape juice,
which is then
fermented to produce wine
22.214.171.124 Speciality Chemicals
126.96.36.199.1 High value chemicals needed in small amounts
188.8.131.52.1.1 Made on demand when a customer needs them
184.108.40.206.1 Raw materials
needed may be
220.127.116.11.1.1 Several steps are needed to
extract chemicals from
18.104.22.168.1.1.1 1. Crush plant material
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 2. Dissolve in a suitable solvent and then filter
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1 3. Boil to evaporate the solvent
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1.1 4. Separate the chemical by chromatography
3 Making medicines
3.1.1 Research and testing
Suitable new substances must be identified, then tested to make sure they are safe and effective.
Thousands of new substances may be made and tested in the development of a new drug.
The 1st tests involve computer simulations and tests on cells grown in the laboratory. The most promising substances are tested on laboratory animals
If it passes these first stages, a substance is checked for side effects in healthy human volunteers. It is then tested on a small group of patients to see if it works as expected, and then on a larger group to gather more information on it.
All stages in development are expensive and time consuming.
3.1.2 Labour costs
Many skilled people are needed
Electricity and fuel are needed and these are expensive
3.1.4 Raw materials
The raw materials may be rare or expensive, and complex chemical reactions may be needed to make a drug from them
3.1.5 Time taken for development
Research and testing take a long time, and a new drug must be licenced for use.
Healthcare professionals have to be told about the drug and how to use it.
3.2 Payback time
3.2.1 The time taken to
regain money spent on
22.214.171.124 If the patent expires
earlier than this, the
company may lose a
lot of money on the
126.96.36.199.1 A patent lasts up to 20
years and prevents
other companies from
making and selling the
188.8.131.52.1.1 Once it
and sell it
3.3.1 The presence of harmful impurities could make people ill
184.108.40.206 Important to make pharmaceutical drugs as pure as possible
220.127.116.11.1 Testing the purity of pharmaceuticals
It is tested by measuring its melting or boiling point, as impurities alter the temperature at which a drug melts or boils. The further the temperature is away from the correct one, the less pure the drug is.
It can also be tested by TLC ( Thin Layer Chromatography). The different substances move through the a thin layer of of powder coated onto a glass or plastic plate. Colourless substances show up as spots on the plates when reacted with certain chemicals. These may be fluorescent under ultra violet light, or they may become coloured when heated.