Clayton Rugema
Mind Map by Clayton Rugema, updated more than 1 year ago
Clayton Rugema
Created by Clayton Rugema over 5 years ago


This is a mindmap I made, if you like it great, if you don't great, either way you learn more than sitting down doin nothing

Resource summary

1.1 Humans
1.1.1 Human Migration Mitochondrial DNA Benefits Produces Evidenc for African Eve Theory:a) its inheritance down the female line b) its high mutation rate More usuful than nuclear DNA for tracking human migration/evolution: a) mitochondrial DNA is less likely to have degraded over time b) mitochondrial DNA is more abundant Climate Change Impacted: a) mitochondrial DNA is less likely to have degraded over time b) mitochondrial DNA is more abundant
1.1.2 Human Evolution Evidence Stone Tools a) the development of stone tools over time b) how these can be dated from their environment Fossils a) Ardi from 4.4 million years ago b) Lucy from 3.2 million years ago c) Leakey’s discovery of fossils from 1.6 million years ago
1.2 Communication
1.2.1 Animal Communication Sound a) birds sing to show territory b) cats hiss to frighten c) deer stags roar to challenge and attract Chemical pheromones - attract opposite sex Visual gestures - hand waving body language - position of body to expres emotion
1.2.2 Plant Communication Using Chemicals Flowers produce scents to attract animals The animal feeds on nectar and takes the pollen to the next flower it feeds on Mutualistic Relationship Plants can also produce chemicals for other plants Roots - Chemicals from roots go to the roots of other plants Reduces competition for water and mineral ions Warning - Some release chemicals when being attacked to warn other plants Other plans produce poison only when warned because it takes a lot of energy Co-Evolution A change in characteristic caused in one species by a change in another species Plants co-evolved their shape with animal pollinators so only some species can feed at the flower Benefit: Pollen will be transported to a similar flower Animals don't have to compete with others to get nectar
1.3 Behaviour
1.3.1 Learned Behaviours imprinting Innate
1.3.2 Simple Behaviours Habituation The inhibitions of a response to a repeated harmless stimulus a) sniffer dogs b) police horses c) dolphins classical conditioning operant conditioning
1.3.3 Parenting Parenting Behaviours Birds & Mammals rear the young by: a) protecting the young from danger b) helping the young to find food c) sheltering the young from cold and wet d) teaching the young new skills, such as hunting Evolutionary Strategy Advantage of parental care in relation to evolution a) increased chance of survival of offspring b) increased chance of parental genes being passed on by the offspring
1.3.4 Courtship Finding/selecting a suitable mate to reproduce by/or advertising their qualities Mating Strategies a) a mate for life b) several mates over a lifetime c) a mate for a breeding season d) several mates over one breeding season
1.4 Ethologists
1.4.1 Tinbergen - innate behaviour in gulls
1.4.2 Lorenz - impinting in geese
1.4.3 Fossey - social behaviour in gorillas
1.4.4 Goodall, social behaviour in chimpanzee
2.1.1 Rhythms Photoperiodicity - A response of a plant that changes as day length changes Circadian Rhythm - A pattern of behaviour that changes over a day period
2.1.2 Plant Defences Use chemical defences to: Deter pests that try to eat them Kill pathogens (bacteria fungi) Human Food Supply Pathogens and Pests cause damage to crop Reduces Yield of Crop
2.1.3 Growing Microorganisms Aseptic Technique - Used to prevent infection of wounds from surgry Prevents food spoilage Bacterial Growth Bacteria will double every 20 minutes in the right conditions
2.1.4 Vaccines Edward Jenner - Gave cowpox to a boy that prevented small pox Immunisation - Protects you from infection Vaccine - Contains pathogen/ Used to immunise people
2.1.5 Antibodies Monoclonal Antibodies - Antibodies that carry useful chemical markers or treatmens Pregnancy Test Blood Clots/ Cancer Cells Hybridoma Cell - From B Lymphocyte & Cancer Cell. Makes antibodies
2.2.1 Kidneys Waste products Metabolic Reactions - Produce waste that diffuse into the blood. They need to be removed CO2 is waste product of respiration Breakdown of excess amino acids in liver produces urea Structure of Urinal System a) renal artery and vein b) kidneys c) ureters d) bladder e) urethra Role of Kidney Remove urea from blood,. adjust ion & water levels using osmoregulation & selective reabsorption Treatments for kidney failure Kidney Dialysis Organ donation Nephron Structure a) glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule b) convoluted tubules c) loop of Henlé d) collecting duct Function a) filtration in the glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule b) selective reabsorption of glucose c) reabsorption of water (osmoregulation) d) removal of excess water in urine
2.2.2 Role of ADH Produced by the Pituitary Gland Regulates water content of the blood - osmoregulation Negative Feedback
2.2.3 Menstrual Cycle Menstrual Cycle - oestrogen and progesterone Stages - Menstruation, Uterus Lining Thickening, Ovulation Uterus lining maintains during fertilisation The embryo needs to be in the thick uterus lining, so that it can get its nutrients from the mother
2.2.4 Hormone Control a) FSH stimulates maturation of follicles, which stimulates oestrogen production b) oestrogen is responsible for repair of the uterus wall c) high levels of oestrogen stimulate a surge in LH, which triggers ovulation d) corpus luteum secretes progesterone, which maintains the lining of the uterus e) progesterone inhibits FSH and LH production f) during pregnancy, progesterone levels remain high g) menstruation is triggered by a drop in oestrogen and progesterone levels h) low progesterone levels allow an increase in FSH levels Negative Feedback Relativity Changes of a released hormone stops the release of other hormones e.g. progesterone inhibits FSH and LH
2.3.1 Fertilisation Egg Cell a) cytoplasm to provide nutrients b) haploid nucleus containing one set of the genetic material c) immediately after fertilisation the cell membrane around the egg changes to block entry of other sperm Sperm Cell a) acrosome containing enzymes b) haploid nucleus containing one set of the genetic material c) middle section containing mitochondria d) tail for motility Infertility Treatments Donation of Eggs IVF Surrogate Mother Hormones
2.3.2 Sex Determination Genotype - All of the genes of an indivisual XX - Female XY - Male Phenotype - The look of the indivisual
2.3.3 Sex-Linked Inheritance Allele - one half of a pair of genes Dominant Recessive Haemophilia Sex linked genetic disorder XH - normal blood clotting Xh - poor blood clotting (recessive)
3.1 Bio-Food
3.1.1 Microogranisms for Food Advantages a) rapid population growth b) ease of manipulation c) production independent of climate d) use of waste products from other industrial processes Making Yogurt Type of Bacteria used, type of milk used, temperature and the pH: Can change: the speed o production and type of yogurt a) Milk is warmed to 40'C b) a culture of bacteria is added to the milk c) bacteria convert lactose in milk to lactic acid d) lactic acid makes mixture taste sour and thicken
3.1.2 Mycoprotein (Fake Meat) A protein rich food made using a fungus - Fusuarium sp. in large fermenters Advantages - No saturated fat (red meat does) which can cause heart disease. High fibre (red meat doesn't) - reduces glucose absorption and insulin surges - reduces type 2 diabetes - reduces bowel cancer
3.1.3 Biotechnology a) mitochondrial DNA is less likely to have degraded over time b) mitochondrial DNA is more abundant Fermenter - a vessel used to cultivate microorganisms for the production of biomolecules on a large scale Conditioning Fermenters a) aseptic precautions b) nutrients c) optimum temperature d) pH e) oxygenation f) agitation
3.2 World Problems
3.2.1 A GM Future? Genetic Modification by using bacterium: Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector e.g gene for making flavinoid can be inserted into tomato cells to make purple tomatoes GM crop seeds cost a lot but purple tomatoes may help anyone with cancer live longer. MEDC: Money + No Lnad = GM LEDC: No Money + Land = Biofules
3.2.2 Global Food Security Increased Food Production Conventional Plant-Breeding can develop new varieties of plants that have higher yields plants that have good yield and/or drought tolerant, need less fertiliser are crossed Plants grown from the seeds of the crosses are selected for their good features and are crossed with eachother Selection and crossing is repeated until high-yielding variety is produced Pest Management Pesticides Pheremones less attractive crop varieties Bio-fuels Advantges: a) biofuels are renewable (fossil fuels aren't), crop growth takes CO2 from the air Disadvantages: a) biofuel crops need land to grow on, and this may take land needed for growing food crops
3.2.3 Insect-resistant plants Use of Bt in plants Advantages: a) crop damage is reduced so crop yield should increase b) less chemical insecticide is needed so harmless/useful insects are less likely to be harmed (improves bio-diversity) Disadvantages: a) seed from transgenic plants is more expensive than seeds from non transgenic b) insect pests may become resistant to Bt c) Pollination would cause Bt gene to transfer to other plants and make them resistant to plants to
3.3 Technology
3.3.1 Enzyme Technology Chymosin Enzyme that effects proteins in milk. Making solid curds and liquid whey. Curds are used for cheese Natural chymosin comes from calves' stomachs Enzyme can be made using GMB for vegetarian cheese Invertase (Sucrase) - converts sugar sucrose into glucose and fructose. Commercially produced by yeast - used to make sweets taste sweeter and soft centres Washing Powder Protease enzymes digest proteins and lipase digests fats and oils, usually found as stains on clothes. You can wash low temperatures with these enzymes, with washing powder, which saves time and energy for heating
3.3.2 DNA Technology Making Human Insulin You need: a) restriction enzymes b) ligase c) sticky ends
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