Excretion: Liver.

TomBrittain
Mind Map by TomBrittain, updated more than 1 year ago
TomBrittain
Created by TomBrittain about 5 years ago
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A2 Biology Excretion, OCR F214

Resource summary

Excretion: Liver.
1 Functions of the Liver
1.1 Synthesis
1.1.1 Triglycerides Plama Proteins Chlosererol
1.2 Breakdown
1.2.1 Worn out RBC
1.3 Detoxification
1.3.1 Many Compounds: Alcohol/Drugs/Hydrogn Peroxide
1.4 Carbohydrate Metabolism
1.4.1 Regulates Blood-Glucose levels
1.5 Lipid Metabolism
1.5.1 - Lipids used in respiration - Sysnthesis/regulation cholesterol
1.6 Protein Metabolism
1.6.1 Regulates AA levels via transamination/deamination of excess AAx
1.7 Storage
1.7.1 Vitamin A/D, Iron
2 Adaptations of the Liver
2.1 Many Mitochondria
2.1.1 Production of ATP (aerobic respiration) Ornithine Cycle/Protein Synthesis
2.2 RER
2.2.1 Synthesises plasma proteins
2.3 Lipid Droplets
2.3.1 Storage lipids --> ENEGY! (Respiration)
2.4 Glycogen Granules
2.4.1 Stores glucose / Can release glucose into blood incleasing Blood-Glucose conc.
2.5 Microvilli
2.5.1 Increase S.A between hepatocytes + blood (E.g: hepatic portal vein)
3 Detoxification of Ethanol
3.1 Ethanol Oxidised to Ethanal
3.1.1 Ethanal Oxidised to Ethanoate
3.1.1.1 Ethanoate Enters Krebs Cycle
3.1.1.1.1 Co-Enzyme: Acetyl CoA
3.1.1.1.2 Ethanoate binds with Acetyl CoA
3.1.1.2 Enzyme: Ethanal Dehydrogenase
3.1.1.3 Co-Enzyme: NAD (Forming Reduced NAD)
3.1.2 Enzyme: Ethanol Dehydrogenase
3.1.3 Co-Enzyme: NAD (Forming Reduced NAD)
3.2 N.B: NAD --> Reduced NAD = Accepting 2 H atoms.
4 Formation of Urea
4.1 The Amino Acid is deaminated (amine group is removed)
4.1.1 Keto Acid enters aerobic prespiration producing ATP OR converted to carbohydrate/lipid
4.1.1.1 Ammonia combined with Carbon Dioxide forming Urea (Ornithine Cycle.)
4.1.1.1.1 Urea transported to kidneys and excreted in urine.
4.1.1.1.1.1 LESS TOXIC AND LESS SOLUBLE
4.1.1.1.2 TOXIC AND SOLUBLE!
5
5.1 D - Bile Duct
5.2 A - Branch of the Hepatic Artery
5.3 B - Branch of the Hepatic Portal Vein
5.4 C - Hepatic Vein
6
6.1 B - Hepatic Vein
6.2 C - Hepatic Artery
6.3 D - Common Hepatic Duct
6.4 E - Hepatic Portal Vein
6.5 F - Stomach
6.6 G - Cystic Duct
6.7 A - Right Lobe of Liver
6.8 H - Gall Bladder
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